Table 1

Change in the slope index of inequality (SII)* in all-cause mortality with and without smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) per 100 000 person-years, and the contribution of SAM on the changes in all-cause mortality inequalities for the population aged 30 and older by sex in England and Wales, Finland, and Italy (Turin), 1972–2017

Change in SII per 100 000 person-years*Contribution of SAM to the change in SII in all-cause mortality
All-cause (a)Without smoking (b)Absolute (c)†Relative (%) (d)‡
England and Wales
Italy (Turin)
  • Negative numbers in (c) mean that smoking contributed to a decline in all-cause SII, whereas positive numbers in (c) mean that smoking increased it. Negative numbers in (d) mean that the contribution of SAM is opposed to the observed trend in all-cause SII. Numbers higher than 100 in (d) indicate that the direction of the trend in SII without SAM was the opposite of that observed for the SII in all-cause mortality. The findings for English and Welsh females need to be interpreted with caution given large fluctuations in SII for smoking-attributable, all-cause and non-smoking-attributable mortality. Data sources: ONS Longitudinal Study/Statistics Finland/Turin Longitudinal Study.

  • *Based on fitted values from segmented regression analysis.

  • †(c)=(a)–(b).

  • ‡(d)=[(a)–(b)/(a)]×100.