Table 1

Baseline sociodemographic, lifestyle and health characteristics of the cohort of participants with diabetes by sex (n=25 713).

Males
(n=14 697)
Females
(n=11 016)
Total
(n=25 713)
P value
Sociodemographics
Age group (years)45–593373 (23)3055 (27.7)6428 (25)<0.001
60–747223 (49.1)5011 (45.5)12 234 (47.6)
75+4101 (27.9)2950 (26.8)7051 (27.4)
Duration of diabetes (years)<106360 (43.3)4851 (44.0)11 211 (43.6)0.001
≥104898 (33.3)3168 (28.8)8066 (31.43)
Missing3439 (23.3)2997 (27.2)6463 (25.1)
Index of socioeconomic disadvantage, quintile1st quintile (most disadvantaged)3903 (26.6)3403 (30.9)7306 (28.4)<0.001
2nd quintile3369 (22.9)2605 (23.6)5974 (23.2)
3rd quintile2674 (18.2)1930 (17.5)4604 (17.9)
4th quintile2143 (14.6)1486 (13.5)3629 (14.1)
5th quintile2263 (15.4)1355 (12.3)3618 (14.1)
Missing345 (2.3)237 (2.2)582 (2.3)
Household income per year (AU$)<30 0006355 (43.2)4946 (44.9)11 301 (44)<0.001
30 000 to <70 0003326 (22.6)1724 (15.6)5050 (19.6)
70 000+2064 (14)850 (7.7)2914 (11.3)
Missing2952 (20.1)3496 (31.7)6448 (25.1)
Highest educationUp to school or intermediate certificate5082 (34.6)6010 (54.6)11 092 (43.1)<0.001
Higher school to diploma6700 (45.6)3407 (30.9)10 107 (39.3)
Degree or higher2530 (17.2)1288 (11.7)3818 (14.8)
Missing385 (2.6)311 (2.8)696 (2.7)
Language other than English spoken at homeNo12 642 (86)9598 (87.1)22 240 (86.5)0.01
Yes2055 (14)1418 (12.9)3473 (13.5)
Country of birthAustralia10 252 (69.8)8074 (73.3)18 326 (71.3)<0.001
Asia/MidEast/South Europe/North Africa1396 (9.5)869 (7.9)2265 (8.8)
Other2887 (19.6)1958 (17.8)4845 (18.8)
Missing162 (1.1)115 (1)277 (1.1)
Private health insuranceNo5983 (40.7)5111 (46.4)11 094 (43.1)<0.001
Yes8324 (56.6)5563 (50.5)13 887 (54)
Missing390 (2.7)342 (3.1)732 (2.8)
Lifestyle
Body weight (BMI, kg/m²)Underweight/normal (<25)2760 (18.8)2157 (19.6)4917 (19.1)<0.001
Overweight (25 to <30)5686 (38.7)3063 (27.8)8749 (34)
Obese (30+)5351 (36.4)4722 (42.9)10 073 (39.2)
Missing900 (6.1)1074 (9.7)1974 (7.7)
Smoking statusCurrent regular smoker1029 (7.0)705 (6.4)1734 (6.7)<0.001
Past regular smoker7466 (50.8)3184 (28.9)10 650 (41.4)
Never smoked6202 (42.2)7127 (64.7)13 329 (51.8)
Moderate to vigorous physical activity (minutes/week)0–1494027 (27.4)3118 (28.3)7145 (27.8)0.001
≥15010 038 (68.3)7149 (64.9)17 187 (66.8)
Missing632 (4.3)749 (6.8)1381 (5.4)
Health
Family history of diabetesNo8556 (58.2)5734 (52.1)14 290 (55.6)<0.001
Yes6141 (41.8)5282 (47.9)11 423 (44.4)
Ever told by a doctor you have high blood pressureNo6067 (41.3)4303 (39.1)10 370 (40.3)<0.001
Yes8630 (58.7)6713 (60.9)15 343 (59.7)
Takes blood pressure medicationNo7130 (48.5)5491 (49.8)12 621 (49.1)0.034
Yes7567 (51.5)5525 (50.2)13 092 (50.9)
Treated for high cholesterol in last monthNo10 349 (70.4)7345 (66.7)17 694 (68.8)<0.001
Yes4348 (29.6)3671 (33.3)8019 (31.2)
Ever told by a doctor you have heart diseaseNo10 514 (71.5)9025 (81.9)19 539 (76)<0.001
Yes4183 (28.5)1991 (18.1)6174 (24)
Ever told by a doctor you have had a strokeNo13 582 (92.4)10 303 (93.5)23 885 (92.9)<0.001
Yes1115 (7.6)713 (6.5)1828 (7.1)
  • BMI, body mass index.