Table 3

Associations between risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and vitamin 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 (per nmol/L increase): by ethnic group

OutcomePercentage difference in outcome per nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D2 (95% CI), p value
All n=4650)White European (n=1117)South Asian (n=1275)Black African Caribbean (n=1176)
Differences (95% CIs)P valueDifferences (95% CIs)P valueDifferences (95% CIs)P valueDifferences (95% CIs)P value
Insulin (mU/L)−0.39 (−0.74 to 0.03)0.030.15 (−0.52 to 0.83)0.66−0.22 (−0.82 to 0.39)0.48−1.49 (−2.15 to 0.83)<0.0001
HOMA IR−0.39 (−0.74 to 0.04)0.030.12 (−0.54 to 0.79)0.72−0.20 (−0.79 to 0.40)0.52−1.40 (−2.05 to 0.74)<0.0001
Glucose (mmol/L)0.00 (−0.04 to 0.05)0.940.06 (−0.02 to 0.15)0.14−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.06)0.68−0.02 (−0.11 to 0.06)0.61
HbA1c (%)0.05 (0.02 to 0.09)0.0030.06 (−0.01 to 0.13)0.080.05 (−0.01 to 0.11)0.110.03 (−0.04 to 0.09)0.42
Triglyceride (mmol/L)0.77 (0.55 to 0.99)<0.00010.93 (0.52 to 1.35)<0.00010.84 (0.47 to 1.21)<0.00010.27 (−0.15 to 0.68)0.21
Fat mass index (kg/m5)0.24 (0.02 to 0.45)0.030.41 (−0.01 to 0.83)0.05−0.14 (−0.51 to 0.23)0.470.16 (−0.25 to 0.58)0.44
Percentage difference in outcome per nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D3 (95% CI), p value
Insulin (mU/L)−0.38 (−0.49 to 0.26)<0.0001−0.35 (−0.54 to 0.17)<0.001−0.65 (−0.90 to 0.40)<0.0001−0.17 (−0.39 to 0.05)0.13
HOMA IR−0.38 (−0.50 to 0.27)<0.0001−0.37 (−0.55 to 0.18)<0.0001−0.65 (−0.89 to 0.40)<0.0001−0.18 (−0.40 to 0.04)0.11
Glucose (mmol/L)−0.04 (−0.05 to 0.02)<0.0001−0.04 (−0.06 to 0.01)0.003−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.01)0.11−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.01)0.01
HbA1c (%)−0.01 (−0.02 to 0.00)0.130.01 (−0.01 to 0.03)0.270.00 (−0.03 to 0.03)0.99−0.04 (−0.06 to 0.02)<0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/L)−0.09 (−0.17 to 0.02)0.01−0.20 (−0.31 to 0.09)<0.001−0.18 (−0.34 to 0.03)0.020.08 (−0.06 to 0.22)0.25
Fat mass index (kg/m5)−0.18 (−0.25 to 0.10)<0.0001−0.19 (−0.30 to 0.07)0.001−0.32 (−0.47 to 0.16)<0.0001−0.05 (−0.19 to 0.08)0.45
  • All models adjust for age, sex, month, an interaction between ethnic group and 25(OH)D2 or 25(OH)D3 and school (random effect).

  • P values for interaction between ethnicity and 25(OH)D2 were: insulin p=0.001, HOMA IR p=0.003, glucose p=0.33, HbA1c p=0.86, triglyceride p=0.04, fat mass index p=0.17.

  • P values for interaction between ethnicity and 25(OH)D3 were: insulin p=0.005, HOMA IR p=0.006, glucose p=0.96, HbA1c p<0.001, triglyceride p=0.002, fat mass index p=0.02.

  • NB: The total number includes the ‘other’ ethnic group which is not presented here.

  • HOMA IR, homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; 25(OH)D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D.