Table 1

Risk markers for type 2 diabetes and vitamin D concentrations by gender and ethnic group

OutcomeBoys
(n=2240)
Girls
(n=2410)
P value (gender difference)White European
(n=1117)
South Asian
(n=1275)
Black African Caribbean
(n=1176)
Other
(n=1082)
P value (ethnic difference)
Mean (SD/GSD)Mean (SD/GSD)Mean (SD/GSD)Mean (SD/GSD)Mean (SD/GSD)Mean (SD/GSD
Insulin (mU/L)*6.49 (1.88)8.13 (1.89)<0.00016.20 (1.80)8.09 (1.89)7.59 (2.00)7.31 (0.62)<0.0001
HOMA IR*0.82 (1.87)1.02 (1.88)<0.00010.78 (1.80)1.02 (1.87)0.95 (1.97)0.92 (0.62)<0.0001
Glucose (mmol/L)*4.56 (1.08)4.48 (1.08)<0.00014.51 (1.08)4.54 (1.08)4.50 (1.09)4.51 (0.08)0.01
HbA1c (%)*5.23 (1.07)5.25 (1.06)0.195.18 (1.05)5.29 (1.06)5.27 (1.08)5.22 (0.06)<0.0001
Triglyceride (mmol/L)*0.76 (1.50)0.85 (1.46)<0.00010.80 (1.48)0.90 (1.50)0.71 (1.43)0.82 (0.38)<0.0001
Fat mass index (kg/m5)*1.91 (1.49)2.17 (1.46)<0.00012.00 (1.50)2.15 (1.44)1.87 (1.49)2.12 (0.39)<0.0001
25(OH)D (nmol/L)*38.5 (1.7)35.0 (1.7)<0.000154.0 (1.5)27.4 (1.7)32.7 (1.6)39.2 (0.5)<0.0001
25(OH)D2 (nmol/L)6.5 (5.9)6.3 (5.5)0.296.5 (5.5)6.5 (5.9)6.1 (5.4)6.6 (5.8)0.09
25(OH)D3 (nmol/L)*31.4 (1.8)28.0 (1.9)<0.000147.0 (1.5)20.6 (1.8)26.2 (1.7)32.2 (0.6)<0.0001
  • All models are adjusted for age, sex, ethnic group, month and school (random effect).

  • *Geometric mean and geometric SD are shown for log transformed variables.

  • GSD, geometric SD; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HOMA-IR, homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D.