Table 2

Associations between risk markers for type 2 diabetes and vitamin 25(OH)D (per nmol/L increase): by ethnic group

OutcomePercentage difference in outcome per nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D (95% CI), p value
All children (n=4650)White European (n=1117)South Asian (n=1275)Black African Caribbean (n=1176)
Differences (95% CIs)P value (difference)Differences (95% CIs)P value (difference)Differences (95% CIs)P value (difference)Differences (95% CIs)P value (difference)
Insulin (mU/L)−0.38 (−0.49 to 0.27)<0.0001−0.33 (−0.51 to 0.15)<0.001−0.58 (−0.81 to 0.35)<0.0001−0.30 (−0.51 to 0.09)0.005
HOMA IR−0.39 (−0.50 to 0.28)<0.0001−0.34 (−0.52 to 0.16)<0.001−0.57 (−0.80 to 0.34)<0.0001−0.30 (−0.51 to 0.09)0.006
Glucose (mmol/L)−0.03 (−0.05 to 0.02)<0.0001−0.03 (−0.05 to 0.01)0.01−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.01)0.11−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.01)0.01
HbA1c (%)0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01)0.620.02 (0.00 to 0.03)0.100.01 (−0.02 to 0.03)0.55−0.04 (−0.06 to 0.01)0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/L)−0.01 (−0.08 to 0.06)0.86−0.12 (−0.23 to 0.00)0.04−0.03 (−0.17 to 0.11)0.660.11 (−0.02 to 0.24)0.11
Fat mass index (kg/m5)−0.14 (−0.20 to 0.07)<0.001−0.15 (−0.26 to 0.04)0.01−0.28 (−0.43 to 0.14)<0.0001−0.03 (−0.16 to 0.10)to 0.68
  • All models adjust for age, sex, month, an interaction between ethnic group and 25(OH)D, and school (random effect).

  • P values for interaction between ethnicity and 25(OH)D were: insulin p=0.08, HOMA IR p=0.09, glucose p=0.96, HbA1c p<0.001, triglyceride p=0.02, fat mass index p=0.01.

  • NB: The total number includes the ‘other’ ethnic group which is not presented here.

  • HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HOMA-IR, insulin resistance-insulin resistance; 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D.