Table 3

Associations between area-level socioeconomic status (exposure) and lifestyle behaviours (mediators) by sex and as main effects or effects moderated by age (n=7211): the Tromsø Study 2015–2016

MediatorsMain effects not moderated by ageEffects moderated by age
WomenMenWomenMen
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
−1 SDMean age+1 SD−1 SDMean age+1 SD
Smoking (ref: Never)
 Previous* 0.77 (0.68 to 0.88)1.04 (0.90 to 1.20) 0.88 (0.79 to 0.98) 0.75 (0.64 to 0.87)No significant interaction with age
 Occasional*1.14 (0.86 to 1.51) 1.66 (1.01 to 2.73)1.20 (0.87 to 1.64)0.87 (0.61 to 1.23)
 Current* 0.57 (0.46 to 0.69)0.82 (0.65 to 1.05) 0.65 (0.54 to 0.78) 0.52 (0.41 to 0.65)
Alcohol (ref: 0 units)
 1–2 units* 1.50 (1.14 to 1.96) 1.81 (1.45 to 2.25) 1.75 (1.42 to 2.17) 1.70 (1.18 to 2.45)No significant interaction with age
 3–4 units* 1.48 (1.11 to 1.98) 2.10 (1.56 to 2.84) 1.64 (1.27 to 2.11)1.27 (0.86 to 1.89)
 5 or more*0.96 (0.69 to 1.33)2.18 (0.98 to 4.86) 1.70 (1.01 to 2.88)1.33 (0.80 to 2.22)
Snuff0.97 (0.82 to 1.14)†0.78 (0.45 to 1.37)†0.82 (0.58 to 1.17)†0.86 (0.65 to 1.14)†No significant interaction with age
 Never
 Previous
 Current
Physical activity1.06 (0.90 to 1.24)† 1.28 (1.13 to 1.45)† 1.54 (1.31 to 1.82)† 1.08 (0.91 to 1.29)† 1.31 (1.14 to 1.50)† 1.58 (1.32 to 1.89)†
 Sedentary
 Light activity
 Moderate-to-vigorous activity
Dietary variables (women n=2607, men n=2264)
B (95%CI) B (95%CI) B (95%CI) B (95%CI)
Fruits and vegetables (g/day) 26.77 (5.91 to 48.41)No significant interaction with age22.38 (−6.49 to 51.26) 43.59 (22.98 to 64.21) 64.8 (34.89 to 94.7)
Saturated fat (g/day)−0.18 (−0.98 to 0.63)−0.74 (−1.75 to 0.25)No significant interaction with ageNo significant interaction with age
Sugar (g/day)−0.77 (−2.29 to 0.75)−1.03 (−3.15 to 1.07)No significant interaction with ageNo significant interaction with age
  • All models are adjusted for age and individual-level socioeconomic status and accounted for area-level clustering. All effects are estimated per unit increase in ASES; OR=odds ratio; CI=confidence interval; SD=standard deviation; B=regression coefficient; ref=reference category; proportional odds assumption was tested to see if the variable is nominal or ordinal.

  • Bold typeface indicates significance.

  • *Nominal mediator, using generalised additive mixed models with multinominal variance.

  • †Treated as an ordinal variable (therefore only one value).

  • ASES, area-level socioeconomic status.