Table 3

Associations between MEPI and ARI

Multidimensional energy povertyARI, N (%)ARI aOR (95% CI)*P value§R2
Energy poverty†
 No4931 (6.09)RefRef
 Yes32 910 (8.19)1.18 (1.09 to 1.27) <0.001 0.08
MEPI‡37 841 (7.8)1.05 (1.04 to 1.07) <0.001 0.08
MEPI indicators ARI, N (%) ARI aOR (95% CI)* P value§
Using biomass for cooking
 No5734 (6.08)RefRef
 Yes32 107 (8.26)1.15 (1.07 to 1.23) <0.001 0.08
Indoor pollution
 No28 510 (8.00)RefRef
 Yes9331 (7.35)0.98 (0.92 to 1.03)0.380.05
Electricity access
 No19 922 (9.81)1.17 (1.10 to 1.26) <0.001 0.08
 Yes17 919 (6.40)RefRef
Household appliance ownership
 No32 948 (8.18)1.12 (1.04 to 1.21) 0.002 0.08
 Yes4893 (6.11)RefRef
Entertainment/education appliance ownership
 No22 752 (7.18)1.07 (1.02 to 1.13) 0.01 0.08
 Yes15 089 (9.08)RefRef
Telecommunication means
 No8047 (9.81)1.05 (0.98 to 1.11)0.170.08
 Yes29 794 (7.43)RefRef
  • Table is based on an imputed dataset.

  • P values are based on binary logistic regression models.

  • *Model adjusted for: child’s age, child’s sex, first-born, vitamin A supplementation, breastfeeding status, BCG vaccination, treatment sought for fever/cough, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, shelter index, drinking water source, household smoking, crowding, urban–rural status, rainy season and country.

  • †Energy poverty status was defined with an MEPI cut-off value of 0.30.

  • ‡Unit of change=0.1.

  • §P-values in bold are significant.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; ARI, acute respiratory infection; MEPI, Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index; n, total number of cases.