Table 2

Association of genetically predicted tobacco and alcohol use and frailty index and falling risk in sensitivity analysis

ExposureMR methodCausal estimate on frailty indexCausal estimate on falling risk
Beta (95% CI)P valueHeterogeneity/pleiotropyOR (95% CI)P valueHeterogeneity/pleiotropy
Initiation of smokingMR-APSS0.39 (0.29, 0.49)5.11E–15Cochran Q: 916.981.18 (1.12, 1.25)1.66E–08Cochran Q: 801.04
MR-Egger0.26 (0.09, 0.44)3.29E–03MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.3481.42 (1.14, 1.75)1.44e–03MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.880
Weighted median0.32 (0.25, 0.38)7.32E–21Distortion test (P): 0.7651.39 (1.27, 1.51)2.56E–13Distortion test (P): 0.420
Age of initiation of smokingMR-APSS−0.36 (−0.65, 0.08)0.013Cochran Q: 55.350.90 (0.77, 1.04)0.169Cochran Q: 24.40
MR-Egger0.17 (−0.69, 1.02)0.709MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.3151.13 (0.52, 2.44)0.758MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.308
Weighted median−0.19 (−0.37, 0.01)0.043Distortion test (P): NA0.73 (0.59, 0.90)3.38E–03Distortion test (P): NA
Cigarettes per dayMR-APSS0.17 (0.04, 0.29)9.07E–03Cochran Q: 161.731.08 (1.01, 1.16)0.035Cochran Q: 172.37
MR-Egger0.03 (−0.08, 0.14)0.610MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.0010.93 (0.80, 1.08)0.349MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.003
Weighted median0.08 (0.01, 0.15)0.030Distortion test (P): 0.2010.97 (0.88, 1.07)0.543Distortion test (P): 0.649
Cessation smokingMR-APSS0.30 (0.08, 0.53)8.45E–03Cochran Q: 185.421.08 (0.96, 1.24)0.184Cochran Q: 177.92
MR-Egger−0.24 (−0.56, 0.08)0.145MR-Egger intercept (P): 0010.83 (0.54, 1.26)0.379MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.021
Weighted median0.21 (0.07, 0.34)2.65E–03Distortion test (P): 0.4991.10 (0.91, 1.32)0.313Distortion test (P): 0.867
Drinks per weekMR-APSS0.01 (−0.13, 0.16)0.856Cochran Q: 542.231.01 (0.93, 1.10)0.743Cochran Q: 474.69
MR-Egger0.08 (−0.07, 0.22)0.317MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.0081.07 (0.89, 1.29)0.479MR-Egger intercept (P): 0.113
Weighted median0.03 (−0.06, 0.12)0.487Distortion test (P): 0.5631.15 (1.01, 1.30)0.030Distortion test (P): 0.541
  • MR, Mendelian randomisation; MR-APSS, MR for causal inference accounting for pleiotropy and sample structure; NA, not applicable; SNPs, single-nucleotide polymorphisms.