Table 1

Characteristics of the study population and outcomes distribution

SNAC-K
wave 1*
2001–2004
SNAC-K
wave 3
2007–2010
SNAC-K
wave 5
2013–2016
n=629 out of 3285 (19.2%)n=573 out of 2012 (28.5%)n=181 out of 1272 (14.2%)
Age, mean (SD)69.9 (8.5)72.2 (6.7)77.4 (5.8)
Sex, women (%)415 (66.0%)375 (65.4%)112 (61.9%)
Education (%)
 Elementary71 (11.3%)42 (7.3%)12 (6.6%)
 High school303 (48.2%)240 (41.9%)91 (50.3%)
 University255 (40.5%)291 (50.8%)78 (43.1%)
Dual role (%)40 (6.4%)50 (8.7%)12 (6.6%)
Caring for spouse (%)75 (11.9%)82 (14.3%)84 (46.4%)
Living in same household (%)85 (13.5%)80 (14.0%)75 (41.4%)
Hours of care per month (%)
 038 (7.0%)82 (16.0%)9 (5.9%)
 1–30353 (64.7%)276 (53.9%)106 (69.7%)
 30+155 (28.4%)154 (30.1%)37 (24.3%)
Limitations to life† (%)
 None414 (71.6%)418 (74.4%)107 (60.1%)
 Slight87 (15.1%)78 (13.9%)35 (19.7%)
 Moderate52 (9.0%)39 (6.9%)21 (11.8%)
 Great25 (4.3%)27 (4.8%)15 (8.4%)
Perceived burden‡ (%)
 Never417 (72.4%)440 (79.3%)98 (57.3%)
 Rarely41 (7.1%)47 (8.5%)27 (15.8%)
 Sometimes70 (12.2%)28 (5.0%)28 (16.4%)
 Quite often25 (4.3%)25 (4.5%)15 (8.8%)
 Almost always23 (4.0%)15 (2.7%)3 (1.8%)
HAT score, mean (SD)8.3 (1.2)7.5 (1.4)7.5 (1.2)
  • Missing at baseline (wave 1): hours of care per month=84, limitations to life=51, perceived burden=53, HAT=19. Missing in wave 3: hours of care per month=61, limitations to life=11, perceived burden=18, HAT=13. Missing in wave 5: hours of care per month=29, limitations to life=3, perceived burden=10, HAT=3.

  • *Wave 1 constitutes the longitudinal sample within our study (see figure 1).

  • †Refers to the question from the nurse interview on the magnitude of perceived limitations to life, caused by caregiver activities.

  • ‡Refers to the question from the nurse interview on the frequency of perceived burden of caregiving.

  • HAT, Health Assessment Tool;SNACK-K, Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen;