Table 3

Regression analysis of changes of depression score (β) before and during COVID-19 pandemic by individual risk factors (N=2853)

Age-adjusted modelFully adjusted model*
βP valueβP value
Age (SD=6.77)0.076 <0.001 0.052 0.006
Sex (ref. male)0.0220.2490.0320.070
 Primary0 (ref)0 (ref)
Living alone (yes vs no)0.0180.3430.0240.184
Self-rated health
 Very good or good0 (ref)0 (ref)
 Average−0.0050.7870.073 <0.001
 Poor or very poor0.0230.2560.170 <0.001
Working status
(yes vs no)
Depression before COVID pandemic
(yes vs no)
−0.392 <0.001 −0.444 <0.001
Financial stressors†−0.0050.8090.0030.857
Social and perception stressors†0.046 0.015 0.057 0.001
Death and hospitalisation stressors†0.067 <0.001 0.064 <0.001
Delays in healthcare
(yes vs no)
0.0270.1540.048 0.005
Suffer from COVID-19
(yes vs no)
0.038 0.044 0.045 0.008
  • Outcome variable (change in depression score) standardised; SD=4.56.

  • Bold values represent statistically significant effects (p<0.05).

  • *Model adjusted for sex, age, education, living alone, self-rated health, employment status and depression before COVID-19 pandemic.

  • †Latent continuous variable

  • Ref, reference group.