Table 3

Associations between migration background and COVID-19 deaths across the various waves in the Netherlands

VariableNo of deathsModel 1 IRR
(95% CI)
Model 2 IRR
(95% CI)
Model 3 IRR
(95% CI)
First wave (1 March 2020–7 June 2020)
Migration background (broad categories)
 Dutch origin85011.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 LMIC origin4691.41 (1.29 to 1.55)1.35 (1.22 to 1.48)1.21 (1.05 to 1.40)
 HIC origin10491.14 (1.07 to 1.21)1.12 (1.05 to 1.19)1.03 (0.67 to 1.58)
Migration background (specific categories)
 Dutch origin85011.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Turkish origin931.55 (1.26 to 1.90)1.43 (1.16 to 1.76)1.34 (1.09 to 1.64)
 Moroccan origin711.02 (0.81 to 1.29)1.17 (0.92 to 1.48)1.08 (0.85 to 1.36)
 Surinamese origin1721.99 (1.71 to 2.31)1.72 (1.47 to 2.00)1.64 (1.41 to 1.91)
 Dutch Antilles origin241.07 (0.72 to 1.60)0.81 (0.54 to 1.21)0.76 (0.51 to 1.14)
 Other LMIC origin1091.17 (0.96 to 1.41)1.18 (1.47 to 1.32)1.11 (0.92 to 1.35)
 Indonesian (HIC) origin3311.35 (1.21 to 1.51)1.32 (1.18 to 1.47)1.32 (1.18 to 1.47)
 Other HIC origin7181.06 (0.98 to 1.14)1.05 (0.97 to 1.13)1.04 (0.96 to 1.12)
Interwave (7 June 2020–20 September 2020)
Migration background (broad categories)
 Dutch origin3991.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 LMIC origin654.29 (3.28 to 5.61)3.40 (2.57 to 4.49)3.01 (2.25 to 4.01)
 HIC origin741.73 (1.35 to 2.22)1.68 (1.31 to 2.16)1.66 (1.30 to 2.13)
Migration background (specific categories)
 Dutch origin3991.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Turkish origin83.01 (1.49 to 6.08)2.59 (1.28 to 5.26)2.24 (1.10 to 4.58)
 Moroccan origin247.74 (5.10 to 11.73)7.75 (5.02 to 11.96)6.57 (4.21 to 10.24)
 Surinamese origin153.76 (2.24 to 6.31)2.43 (1.44 to 4.11)2.23 (1.32 to 3.79)
 Dutch Antilles origin43.94 (1.47 to 10.59)2.44 (0.91 to 6.56)2.23 (0.83 to 6.02)
 Other LMIC origin143.16 (1.84 to 5.42)2.84 (1.65 to 4.88)2.53 (1.46 to 4.38)
 Indonesian (HIC) origin272.33 (1.58 to 3.44)2.10 (1.42 to 3.10)2.11 (1.43 to 3.12)
 Other HIC origin471.51 (1.11 to 2.04)1.51 (1.12 to 2.05)1.49 (1.10 to 2.01)
First part second wave (21 September 2020–6 December 2020). COVID-19 prevention measures targeted for populations with a migration background introduced here.
Migration background (broad categories)
 Dutch origin49841.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 LMIC origin5652.92 (2.68 to 3.19)2.32 (2.12 to 2.54)2.08 (1.89 to 2.29)
 HIC origin5861.08 (0.99 to 1.18)1.05 (0.97 to 1.15)1.04 (0.96 to 1.14)
Migration background (specific categories)
 Dutch49841.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Turkish origin1414.02 (3.40 to 4.76)3.17 (2.67 to 3.76)2.79 (2.35 to 3.31)
 Moroccan origin1613.91 (3.34 to 4.58)3.52 (3.00 to 4.14)3.03 (2.57 to 3.57)
 Surinamese origin1412.80 (2.36 to 3.31)1.96 (1.65 to 2.33)1.82 (1.53 to 2.16)
 Dutch Antilles origin211.62 (1.05 to 2.48)1.11 (0.72 to 1.70)1.03 (0.67 to 1.58)
 Other LMIC origin1011.87 (1.54 to 2.29)1.65 (1.35 to 2.01)1.49 (1.22 to 1.82)
 Indonesian (HIC) origin1881.31 (1.13 to 1.52)1.21 (1.05 to 1.40)1.21 (1.05 to 1.40)
 Other HIC origin3981.00 (0.90 to 1.11)0.99 (0.90 to 1.10)0.98 (0.88 to 1.08)
Second part second wave (07 December 2021 – 14 March 2021).
Migration background (broad categories)
 Dutch origin94811.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 LMIC origin5801.56 (1.43 to 1.70)1.52 (1.39 to 1.66)1.36 (1.25 to 1.49)
 HIC origin11961.16 (1.09 to 1.23)1.15 (1.08 to 1.22)1.13 (1.07 to 1.20)
Migration background (specific categories)
 Dutch origin94811.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Turkish origin1362.03 (1.71 to 2.41)1.85 (1.56 to 2.19)1.60 (1.35 to 1.90)
 Moroccan origin1161.50 (1.25 to 1.80)1.70 (1.42 to 2.05)1.45 (1.20 to 1.75)
 Surinamese origin1681.72 (1.47 to 2.00)1.59 (1.36 to 1.85)1.47 (1.26 to 1.71)
 Dutch Antilles origin371.46 (1.06 to 2.01)1.16 (0.84 to 1.61)1.09 (0.79 to 1.50)
 Other LMIC origin1231.17 (0.98 to 1.40)1.22 (1.02 to 1.46)1.09 (0.91 to 1.31)
 Indonesian (HIC) origin3871.41 (1.28 to 1.56)1.40 (1.26 to 1.55)1.40 (1.26 to 1.55)
 Other HIC origin8091.07 (0.99 to 1.15)1.06 (0.98 to 1.14)1.04 (0.97 to 1.12)
  • Indonesia is officially categorised as an HIC in the Netherlands due to the history between the two countries. First, countries of origin were broadly classified based on World Bank’s ‘LMIC’ and ‘HIC’ categories. Second, the countries were classified into more specific subgroups, that is, five countries of origin with the largest number of inhabitants (Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, Dutch Antilles and Indonesia), and the remain groups into other LMIC origin and other HIC origin model 1=adjusted for age and sex, model 2=adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, residential care status, household size, model 3=adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, residential care status, household size and household wealth.

  • HIC, high-income country; IRR, Incidence rate ratio; LMIC, low-income and middle-income country.