Table 2

Associations between migration background and COVID-19 deaths between 1 March 2020 and 14 March 2021 (total study period) in the Netherlands

VariableNameNo of deaths
(27 949)
Model 1 IRR
(95% CI)
Model 2 IRR
(95% CI)
Model 3 IRR
(95% CI)
Migration background (broad categories)
Dutch origin23 3651.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
LMIC origin16791.84 (1.75 to 1.94)1.69 (1.61 to 1.78)1.54 (1.46 to 1.62)
HIC origin29051.14 (1.10 to 1.19)1.13 (1.08 to 1.17)1.11 (1.07 to 1.16)
Migration background (specific categories)
Dutch origin23 3651.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Turkish origin3782.30 (2.07 to 2.54)2.03 (1.83 to 2.25)1.81 (1.64 to 2.01)
Moroccan origin3721.95 (1.76 to 2.16)2.09 (1.89 to 2.32)1.84 (1.65 to 2.04)
Surinamese origin4962.08 (1.90 to 2.27)1.74 (1.59 to 1.91)1.63 (1.49 to 1.78)
Dutch Antilles origin861.39 (1.13 to 1.72)1.05 (0.85 to 1.29)0.98 (0.79 to 1.21)
Other LMIC origin3471.35 (1.22 to 1.50)1.34 (1.20 to 1.49)1.22 (1.10 to 1.36)
Indonesian (HIC) origin9331.39 (1.30 to 1.48)1.34 (1.20 to 1.49)1.34 (1.25 to 1.43)
Other HIC origin19721.06 (1.01 to 1.11)1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)1.03 (0.99 to 1.08)
  • First, countries of origin were broadly classified based on World Bank’s ‘LMIC’ and ‘HIC’ categories. Second, the countries were classified into more specific subgroups, that is, five countries of origin with the largest number of inhabitants (Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, Dutch Antilles and Indonesia), and the remain groups into other LMIC origin and other HIC origin. Indonesia is officially categorised as a high-income country in the Netherlands due to the history between the two countries. Model 1=adjusted for age and sex, model 2=adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, residential care status, household size, model 3=adjusted for age, sex, region of residence, residential care status, household size and household wealth.

  • HIC, high-income countries; IRR, Incidence rate ratio; LMIC, low-income and middle-income country.