Table 2

Association between receiving public welfare assistance and suicidal ideation among older adults in Japan (N=16 135)

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
PR95% CIPR95% CIPR95% CIPR95% CIPR95% CI
Receipt of public assistance 2.97 (2.12 to 4.17) 2.99 (2.14 to 4.20) 2.03 (1.44 to 2.87) 1.52 (1.06 to 2.19) 1.47 (1.02 to 2.13)
Age (ref: 65–69)
 70–74 0.69 (0.58 to 0.82) 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) 0.67 (0.57 to 0.80)
 75–79 0.57 (0.47 to 0.69) 0.52 (0.43 to 0.64) 0.54 (0.44 to 0.66) 0.53 (0.44 to 0.65)
 80–84 0.50 (0.39 to 0.65) 0.45 (0.34 to 0.58) 0.46 (0.35 to 0.59) 0.45 (0.35 to 0.58)
 85+ 0.58 (0.42 to 0.81) 0.49 (0.35 to 0.69) 0.45 (0.33 to 0.63) 0.44 (0.32 to 0.62)
Sex (ref. male) 1.21 (1.06 to 1.39)1.13(0.98 to 1.29) 1.18 (1.03 to 1.35)1.16(0.99 to 1.36)
A no of household members (Ref: Living alone)
 2 0.55 (0.46 to 0.65) 0.62 (0.52 to 0.73) 0.63 (0.53 to 0.75)
 3+ 0.63 (0.52 to 0.77) 0.67 (0.55 to 0.82) 0.69 (0.56 to 0.85)
Education >9 years (ref: ≤9 years) 0.79 (0.67 to 0.94) 0.84 (0.71 to 0.99) 0.83 (0.70 to 0.99)
Equivalised household income (JPY 10 000; Ref:<100)
 ≥JPY100 to <JPY2000.81(0.65 to 1.02)0.90(0.72 to 1.12)0.89(0.72 to 1.11)
 ≥JPY200 to <JPY3000.85(0.67 to 1.02)1.06(0.84 to 1.34)1.06(0.84 to 1.34)
 ≥JPY300 to <JPY400 0.64 (0.49 to 0.85)0.85(0.65 to 1.12)0.85(0.65 to 1.12)
 ≥JPY4000.78(0.59 to 1.04)1.13(0.85 to 1.50)1.13(0.85 to 1.50)
Depressive symptoms 4.07 (3.53 to 4.68) 4.00 (3.46 to 4.62)
Medical conditions (Ref: none)
 1 or 20.97(0.81 to 1.15)
 3+ 1.25 (1.02 to 1.55)
Completed IADL (Ref: lower IADL)1.06(0.90 to 1.26)
  • Bold font is used to show statistically significant results. Model 1 was a null model that included only receipt of public welfare assistance. Model 2 additionally included age and sex. Model 3 included the same variables as in model 2 and the number of household members, education and equivalent household income. Model 4 included the same variables as in model 3 and depressive symptoms. The fully adjusted model 5 had the same variables as in model 4 and IADL and medical conditions. To adjust for geographical variation, the individual municipalities were coded as dummy variables and included in the analysis.

  • IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; PR, prevalence ratio.