Table 1

Investigated factors, data sources and summary statistics

TypeDomainVariablePeriodSource (Reference)Mean (SD)Range
OutcomeExcess mortalityExcess mortality per 100 000 populationJanuary 2020–September 2021World Mortality Database14 160 (146)−41.7 to 608
ExposureDemocratic governanceV-Dem Liberal Democracy Index (LDI)2019V-Dem Institute15 0.544 (0.257)0.062–0.858
EIU Democracy Index2019EIU18 6.66 (1.98)1.94–9.81
CovariatesDemographicPopulation age ≥65(% total)2019World Bank47 14.3 (6.02)2.00–28.0
Population age ≥80(% total)2019World Bank48 3.58 (1.98)0–8.56
Population density (people per sq. km)2018World Bank49 321 (1153)2.04–7953.0
Population female (%)2019World Bank50 50.3 (3.58)24.7–54.1
EconomicGDP per capita (current US$)2019World Bank51 24 480 (23795)891–1 14 685
Gini index2014–2019World Bank52 34.5 (6.69)24.6–53.4
COVID-19 burdenCumulative COVID-19 cases per 100 000 populationJan 2020- Sept 2021Johns Hopkins University19 5576 (3962)38.7–15 649
Chronic conditionsPrevalence of cardiovascular disease (%)2019Global Burden of Disease Study53 9.58 (3.48)3.47–16.5
Prevalence of chronic respiratory disease (%)2019Global Burden of Disease Study53 8.13 (3.28)3.11–16.1
Prevalence of diabetes and kidney diseases (%)2019Global Burden of Disease Study53 16.4 (3.53)8.94–25.4
Prevalence of neurological disorders (%)2019Global Burden of Disease Study53 41.2 (4.73)28.4–50.9
Prevalence of cancer (%)2019Global Burden of Disease Study53 11.9 (5.05)3.77–27.0
Disease risk factorsPrevalence of adult obesity (BMI >30, %)2010–2019World Obesity Federation20.8 (7.97)3.60–42.7
Age-standardised mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution per 100 000 population2016World Health Statistics 202054 42.7 (34.9)5.90–185.2
Age standardised prevalence of tobacco smoking among persons aged 15 and older (%)2018World Health Statistics 202054 24.0 (8.54)6.90–44.7
Health systemUHC Service Coverage Index2017World Bank55 75.2 (7.63)55.0–89.0
Current health expenditure per capita (current US$)2018World Bank56 2088 (22397)59.8–10 623
Out-of-pocket expenditure (% current health expenditure)2018World Bank57 29.2 (16.5)5.99–84.3
VaccinationPopulation in receipt of at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine (%)Jan 2020 - August 2021Our World in Data58 43.0 (22.3)3.63–78.4
Proportion fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (%)Jan 2020 - August 2021Our World in Data58 32.5 (21.7)0.58–74.4
Strength of restrictive policiesCOVID-19 Stringency IndexTime of 1000th CaseOxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker20 75 (22.8)11.1–100
  • BMI, body mass index; EIU, Economist Intelligence Unit; GDP, gross domestic product; UHC, Universal Health Coverage.