Table 4

Association between V-DEM component indices and excess mortality per 100 000 population* (n=75)

Alternative V-DEM component indicesChange in excess mortality per 100 000 for one-unit change in indexP value95% CI
Electoral−0.950.22−2.47 to 0.57
Liberal−0.940.24−2.51 to 0.63
Egalitarian−1.780.08−3.78 to 0.21
Participatory0.220.82−1.76 to 2.21
Deliberative−1.600.02−2.94 to −0.27
  • *All models adjusted for age ≥65 years, population female, GDP per capita and UHC Index.

  • GDP, gross domestic product; UHC, Universal Health Coverage; V-DEM, Varieties of Democracy.