Table 4

Risk ratios for ALCHC in late childhood by income and maternal education at baseline using adjusted multivariate regression

ExposureMCSABISLSAC KGenRNLSCYUSNLSY
(UK)(Sweden)(Australia)(Netherlands)(Canada)(USA)
Risk ratio (95% CI)
Household Income(n=12 648)(n=15 902)(n=4129)(n=5505)(n=1271)(n=2578)
Q1 (richest) (Ref)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Q21.05 (0.80 to 1.39)0.78 (0.46 to 1.33)0.85 (0.50 to 1.43)1.08 (0.84 to 1.39)1.36 (0.77 to 2.4)1.13 (0.65 to 1.95)
Q31.50 (1.15 to 1.95)0.99 (0.58 to 1.69)1.10 (0.65 to 1.85)1.33 (1.09 to 1.62)1.78 (0.87 to 3.65)1.26 (0.72 to 2.21)
Q41.59 (1.22 to 2.07)1.02 (0.59 to 1.77)1.18 (0.70 to 2.01)1.71 (1.39 to 2.12)1.39 (0.71 to 2.69)1.53 (0.87 to 2.69)
Q5 (poorest)1.98 (1.51 to 2.59)1.69 (1.04 to 2.74)3.45 (1.74 to 6.83)2.08 (1.23 to 3.50)
Maternal education(n=12 661)(n=15 894)(n=4127)(n=5500)(n=1261)(n=3085)
High (ref)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Middle1.33 (1.11 to 1.59)1.08 (0.94 to 1.26)1.34 (0.90 to 1.99)1.22 (1.02 to 1.46)1.64 (1.0 to 2.7)1.38 (0.97 to 1.97)
Low1.62 (1.30 to 2.01)1.61 (1.29 to 2.00)1.92 (1.15 to 3.20)1.18 (1.02 to 1.36)2.19 (1.23 to 3.92)1.62 (1.00 to 2.61)
  • Risk ratios adjusted for child sex, maternal ethnicity, maternal age at birth, multiple births for all cohorts. Also see online supplemental table S3. Sample sizes differ from baseline N reported in table 1 due to missing data for SES exposure in early childhood or ALCHC in late childhood or cohort attritio.

  • ABIS, All Babies in South-East Sweden; ALCHC, activity-limiting chronic health conditions; GenR, Generation R; LSAC K, Longitudinal Study of Australian Children K-cohort; MCS, Millennium Cohort Study; NLSCY, National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth; SES, socioeconomic status; SES, socioeconomic status; USNLSY, National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Children and Young Adults.