Table 3

Results from Poisson regression models (incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs) of number of causes of death by characteristics at census prior to death and at death; decedents aged 65 years and over 2001–2007 and 2011–2017, England and Wales

Men2001–2007, n=13 5202011–2017, n=13 026
IRR95% CIP valueIRR95% CIP value
Carstairs deprivation quintile; Ref. 1–2 (least deprived)
 31.0080.983 to 1.0341.0150.989
 41.0150.990 to 1.0401.0291.003 to 1.055 *
 51.0140.989 to 1.0391.0551.029 to 1.081***
Household type/tenure; Ref. Owner
 Renter1.0010.981 to 1.0221.0261.003 to 1.049 *
 Care home†1.0411.002 to 1.081 * 1.0190.980 to 1.061
Limiting long-term illness; Ref. No
 Yes1.0601.036 to 1.085***1.0721.043 to 1.101***
Self-rated heath; Ref. Good
 Fair1.0471.021 to 1.073***1.0511.024 to 1.078***
 Poor1.0761.046 to 1.107***1.0811.049 to 1.113***
Age group at death (years); Ref. 65–9
 70–41.0230.987 to 1.0611.0140.958 to 1.074
 75–91.0681.033 to 1.104***1.0631.006 to 1.123 *
 80–41.0641.028 to 1.100***1.1011.042 to 1.162**
 85–91.0741.037 to 1.113***1.1281.068 to 1.192***
 90–50.9960.955 to 1.0381.1151.053 to 1.181***
 95+0.9290.868 to 0.994 * 1.0610.989 to 1.137
Marital status at death; Ref. Widowed
 Married0.9840.964 to 1.0050.9980.976 to 1.020
 Divorced/separated0.9990.958 to 1.0421.0050.967 to 1.045
 Never married0.9720.938 to 1.0060.9820.943 to 1.014
Place of death; Ref. Private home/other
 Hospital/hospice1.1521.128 to 1.176***1.3121.283 to 1.341***
 Care home1.0411.010 to 1.0730.9910.961 to 1.021
Period Ref. 2001–20071.001.2011.185 to 1.216***
Women 2001–2007, n=16 561 2011–2017, n=15 305
Carstairs deprivation quintile; Ref. 1–2 (least deprived)
 31.0060.982 to 1.0290.9940.970 to 1.006
 41.0331.010 to 1.057**1.0080.984 to 1.032
 51.0431.020 to 1.066***1.0321.008 to 1.056 *
Household type/tenure; Ref. Owner
 Renter1.0090.990 to 1.0281.0190.998 to 1.040
 Care home†1.0170.991 to 1.0440.9880.961 to 1.017
Limiting long-term illness; Ref. No
 Yes1.0571.033 to 1.081***1.0921.061 to 1.125***
Self-rated heath; Ref. Good
 Fair1.0120.989 to 1.0361.0751.048 to 1.103***
 Poor1.0491.024 to 1.075***1.1221.091 to 1.154***
Age group at death (years); Ref. 65–9
 70–41.0220.977 to 1.0680.9990.934 to 1.069
 75–91.0380.995 to 1.0831.0630.997 to 1.134
 80–41.0551.013 to 1.098**1.1141.046 to 1.186**
 85–91.0571.015 to 1.101**1.1271.058 to 1.200***
 90–51.0491.005 to 1.094 * 1.1261.056 to 1.200***
 95+0.9670.921 to 1.0151.0751.005 to 1.148 *
Marital status at death; Ref. Widowed
 Married1.0070.984 to 1.0300.9850.962 to 1.008
 Divorced/separated0.9520.916 to 0.9900.9950.961 to 1.030
 Never married0.9890.960 to 1.0200.9630.928 to 1.000
Place of death; Ref. Private home/other
 Hospital/hospice1.1671.141 to 1.1931.3481.317 to 1.380***
 Care home1.0040.977 to 1.0311.0180.990 to 1.046
Period; Ref. 2001–20071.001.1821.168 to 1.197***
  • Source: analysis of Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Models also include years since census.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Or other type of communal establishment.