Table 3

Mendelian randomisation causal effect estimates for depression on employment outcomes

OutcomeMethodOR95% CIP value
Not in paid employmentIVW fixed effects1.1581.064 to 1.266.7E-04
Sick/disabledIVW fixed effects1.5631.344 to 1.8197.4E-09
Caring for home/familyIVW fixed effects1.1640.977 to 1.3869.0E-02
RetiredIVW fixed effects1.0780.958 to 1.2122.1E-01
UnemployedIVW fixed effects1.0310.840 to 1.2667.7E-01
Outcome Method Beta 95%CI P value
Townsend Deprivation IndexIVW random effects0.095−0.0744 to 0.2642.7E-01
Hours workedIVW random effects−0.130−0.685 to 0.4246.5E-01
Outcome Method OR 95%CI P value
Highest educational attainmentIVW random effects1.0920.938 to 1.2732.6E-01
Household incomeEgger random effects1.2390.817 to 1.8813.2E-01
  • All outcome effects were adjusted for age, sex, study assessment centre, and genetic principal components. Household income level effect was additionally adjusted for number in household winsorised to 12. We report the estimate of the MR method selected via the Rücker Model selection framework.