Table 2

Adjusted relative risks (RR) for non-communicable diseases that is attributable to low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour reported in studies of physical inactivity, institutional eldercare and sedentary behaviour

Study/referenceRR (95% Cl)Adjustment factor*
Physical inactivity
Coronary heart diseaseLee et al41.16 (1.04 to 1.30)1.20
Type 2 diabetesLee et al41.20 (1.10 to 1.33)1.23
Breast cancerLee et al41.33 (1.26 to 1.42)1.05
Colon cancerLee et al41.32 (1.23 to 1.39)1.22
StrokeDing et al91.18 (NA)1.40†
DepressionSchuch et al401.19 (1.13 to 1.26)‡NA
Back painShiri and Falah-Hasani411.12 (1.03 to 1.22)NA
FractureQu et al421.41 (1.25 to 1.59)NA
All-cause mortalityLee et al41.28 (1.21 to 1.36)1.22
Institutional eldercare
Alzheimer’s diseaseBeckett et al431.64 (1.37 to 1.92)NA
FractureQu et al421.41 (1.25 to 1.59)NA
StrokeDing et al91.18 (NA)1.40
Sedentary behaviour
Coronary heart diseasePetersen et al441.12 (0.95 to 1.28)§1.23
Type 2 diabetesHeron et al71.88 (1.62 to 2.17)1.12
All-cause mortalityHeron et al71.25 (1.16 to 1.34)1.87
Colon cancerHeron et al71.30 (1.12 to 1.49)1.22
Breast cancerShen et al451.17 (1.03 to 1.33)NA
DepressionZhai et al461.14 (1.06 to 1.21)NA
  • *Adjustment factor was used to explore differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour between cases with non-communicable disease of interest and healthy participants: If not reported for the cases, physical acitivity was derived from the entire study population.7

  • †From Finnish (FINRISK) cohort study.

  • ‡OR.

  • §Pooled HR.

  • NA, not available.