Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population at follow-up according to hypertension (HTN) status

Non-HTNHTN at follow-upHTN at baseline P value
 n (%)44 962 (44.10)11 189 (10.97)45 808 (44.93)--
 Age (years)53.87±8.0656.83±8.57*†59.45±8.46*<0.0001
 Male (n (%))13 223 (29.41)4082 (36.48) *†17 504 (38.21)*<0.0001
 BMI (kg/m2)23.71±3.3524.74±3.54*†25.50±3.55*<0.0001
 WC (cm)81.25±9.1984.52±9.59*†86.31±9.73*<0.0001
 SBP (mmHg)118.24±11.25127.18±8.95*†149.67±17.67*<0.0001
 DBP (mmHg)72.40±7.7576.73±7.56*†85.13±10.95*<0.0001
 Current smoking (n (%))6434 (14.31)1849 (16.53)*†6460 (14.10)*<0.0001
 Current drinking (n (%))3863 (8.59)1283 (11.47)*†5550 (12.12)*<0.0001
 TG (mmol/L)1.19 (0.86–1.71)1.35 (0.96–1.95)*†1.47 (1.04–2.13)*<0.0001
 TC (mmol/L)4.85±1.134.95±1.13*†5.10±1.12*<0.0001
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.35±0.371.33±0.36*1.33±0.36*<0.0001
 LDL-C (mmol/L)2.81±0.862.86±0.86*†2.96±0.88*<0.0001
 FPG (mmol/L)5.71±1.386.02±1.71*†6.20±1.74*<0.0001
 Fasting insulin (μIU/ml)6.20 (4.40–8.50)6.80 (4.80–9.60)*†7.50 (5.20–10.60)*<0.0001
 ALT (U/L)14.00 (11.00–20.00)15.40 (11.00–22.00)*†16.00 (12.00–22.80)*<0.0001
 AST (U/L)20.00 (16.00–24.00)20.20 (17.00–25.00)*†21.00 (17.20–26.00)*<0.0001
 γ-GGT (U/L)18.00 (13.00–27.00)21.00 (15.00–32.00)*†23.00 (16.00–35.00)*<0.0001
 eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)98.13 (89.97–104.54)95.85 (87.19–102.49)*†92.93 (83.72–99.67)*<0.0001
 Ideal physical activity (n (%))6780 (15.08)1397 (12.49)*5758 (12.57)*<0.0001
 HOMA-IR1.51 (1.06–2.18)1.74 (1.20–2.58)*†1.97 (1.31–2.95)*<0.0001
 Family history of diabetes (n (%))6318 (14.05)1223 (10.93)*†5469 (11.94)*<0.0001
 Education level (n (%))
 Elementary school and below10 005 (22.25)3697 (33.04)*†16 322 (35.63)*<0.0001
 Middle school15 964 (35.51)3842 (34.34)*†15 491 (33.82)*
 High school degree or above18 993 (42.24)3650 (32.62)*†13 995 (30.55)*
 Use of antihypertensive medications (n (%))12 913 (28.19)<0.0001
  • Data were means±SD or medians (IQRs) for skewed variables or numbers (proportions) for categorical variables.

  • P values were for analysis of variance or χ2 analyses across the groups.

  • *P<0.05 compared with non-HTN group.

  • P<0.05 compared with HTN at baseline group.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase ; AST, aspartate aminotransferase ; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance ; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WC, waist circumference; γ-GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase .