Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of first-time fathers of singleton children born from 1992 to 1997, Sweden (n=198 589)

Swedish-born fathers
(n=165 721)
Migrant fathers
(n=32 868)
Children’s birth year1992–19941995–19971992–19941995–1997
Fathers’ characteristics
 Age* (mean)29.0829.6631.0931.45
 Education† (%)
 Unemployed‡ (% no annual labour income)4.275.2630.2640.70
 Annual labour income‡ (mean; in thousands, SEK)161.96180.51115.40126.16
 Parental leave use (% receiving parental leave benefits, 0–36 months after birth)64.6783.0237.8450.24
Migrant fathers’ characteristics
 Region of origin*,§ (%)
 Duration of residence*,¶ (%)
  <5 years37.9933.20
  ≥5 years38.2239.48
  Other (ie, multiple migrations)23.8027.32
 Partners’ nativity* (%)
  Migrant (foreign-born)66.0669.54
Fathers’ psychiatric health
 Pre-birth hospitalisations (% hospitalised, 0–24 months before birth)
 Post-birth hospitalisations (per 1000 person-years, 0–36 months after birth)2.852.505.173.10
  • *Measured in child’s birth year.

  • †First recorded education within the follow-up period; missing values entered with multiple imputation.

  • ‡Measured in the calendar year prior to childbirth.

  • §OECD-predominant regions consist of Europe, North America and Oceania. Non-OECD-predominant regions are defined as regions with predominantly non-OECD countries, including Africa, Asia, South America and stateless/unspecified origins.

  • ¶Calculated only for first-time migrants to Sweden.

  • OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development; SEK, Swedish kronor.