Table 3

Association between immigrant/occupation intersection and COVID-19 outcomes among individuals aged 20–65 years and employed or self-employed

Occupational groups
HR (95% CI) for workers in essential occupations within strata of immigrant status

P value for multiplicative interaction
Non-essential occupationsEssential occupations
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
COVID-19 diagnosis
 Swedish-born11.44 (1.40 to 1.49)
P≤0.001
1.45 (1.41 to 1.50)
P≤0.001
0.973
 Foreign-born1.28 (1.23 to 1.33)
P≤0.001
1.85 (1.78 to 1.93)
P≤0.001
1.42 (1.35 to 1.50)
P≤0.001
HR (95% CI) for foreign-born within strata of occupation1.26 (1.21 to 1.31)
P≤0.001
1.32 (1.26 to 1.38)
P≤0.001
Measures of interaction on addictive scale:
 RERI (95% CI), 0.12 (0.04 to 0.21); p=0.005
 AP (95% CI), 0.07 (0.02 to 0.11); p=0.003
 SI (95% CI), 1.17 (1.05 to 1.31); p=0.005
COVID-19 hospitalisation
 Swedish-born11.30 (1.08 to 1.56)
P=0.006
1.24 (1.02 to 1.50)
P=0.026
0.445
 Foreign-born2.64 (2.24 to 3.11)
P≤0.001
3.80 (3.17 to 4.55)
P≤0.001
1.47 (1.21 to 1.80)
P≤0.001
HR (95% CI) for foreign-born within strata of occupation2.54 (2.15 to 3.00)
P≤0.001
3.06 (2.44 to 3.82)
P≤0.001
Measures of interaction on addictive scale:
 RERI (95% CI), 0.86 (0.19 to 1.53); p=0.011
 AP (95% CI), 0.23 (0.07 to 0.38); p=0.003
 SI (95% CI), 1.45 (1.09 to 1.92); p=0.011
COVID-19 ICU admissions*
 Swedish-born11.46 (0.90 to 2.38)
P=0.122
0.940
 Foreign-born2.56 (1.66 to 3.95)
P≤0.001
3.79 (2.33 to 6.14)
P≤0.001
Measures of interaction on addictive scale:
 RERI (95% CI), 0.76 (–1.07 to 2.59); p=416
 AP (95% CI), 0.20 (–0.22 to 0.62); p=0.353
 SI (95% CI), 1.37 (0.64 to 2.93); p=0.411
  • HR and 95% CI obtained from COX proportional hazards regression.

  • HR adjusted for age, gender, marital status, healthcare region, education, income and pre-existing comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, stroke, asthma, COPD, pneumonia and psychiatric condition).

  • *HR (95%CI) for foreign-born within strata of occupation and HR (95% CI) for workers in essential occupations within strata of immigrant status could not be estimated due to few ICU events in each stratum.

  • AP, attributable proportion due to interaction; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU, intensive care unit; RERI, relative excess risk due to interaction; SI, Synergy Index.