Table 2

Baseline characteristics of study population at baseline by education level

Elementary school and belowMiddle schoolHigh school degree or aboveP for trend
 n (%)30 024 (29.45)35 297 (34.62)36 638 (35.93)--
 Prevalence of HTN (n (%))16 322 (54.36)15 491 (43.89)13 995 (38.20)<0.0001
 Age (years)60.09±8.7855.54±8.1955.05±5.36<0.0001
 Male (n (%))8000 (26.65)12 873 (36.47)13 936 (38.04)<0.0001
 BMI (kg/m2)24.69±3.6824.75±3.5524.46±3.48<0.0001
 WC (cm)83.78±10.0684.19±9.7083.66±9.610.038
 SBP (mmHg)138.99±21.91132.62±20.11129.10±19.23<0.0001
 DBP (mmHg)79.23±11.2479.10±11.0477.59±10.96<0.0001
 Current smoking (n (%))3783 (12.60)6052 (17.15)4908 (13.40)0.13
 Current drinking (n (%))3008 (10.02)4074 (11.54)3614 (9.86)0.22
 TG (mmol/L)1.31 (0.93–1.90)1.34 (0.95–1.95)1.32 (0.94–1.93)0.51
 TC (mmol/L)5.02±1.134.96±1.134.96±1.14<0.0001
 HDL-C (mmol/L)1.38±0.371.33±0.361.31±0.35<0.0001
 LDL-C (mmol/L)2.88±0.872.88±0.872.90±0.880.0005
 FPG (mmol/L)6.02±1.665.99±1.665.89±1.50<0.0001
 Fasting insulin (μIU/ml)6.30 (4.40–9.00)6.80 (4.80–9.60)7.10 (5.10–9.90)<0.0001
 ALT (U/L)15.00 (11.00–20.00)16.00 (11.00–22.00)15.00 (11.00–22.00)<0.0001
 AST (U/L)21.00 (18.00–26.00)20.00 (17.00–25.00)20.00 (16.00–24.00)<0.0001
 γ-GGT (U/L)20.00 (14.00–30.00)21.00 (14.00–32.00)20.00 (14.00–31.90)<0.0001
 eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)93.65 (85.22–99.90)96.44 (87.72–103.23)96.44 (87.19–103.20)<0.0001
 Ideal physical activity (n (%))2353 (7.84)4898 (13.88)6684 (18.24)<0.0001
 HOMA-IR1.61 (1.07–2.44)1.73 (1.18–2.58)1.80 (1.24–2.63)<0.0001
 Family history of diabetes (n (%))1722 (5.74)4452 (12.61)6836 (18.66)<0.0001
  • Data were means±SD or medians (IQRs) for skewed variables or numbers (proportions) for categorical variables.

  • P for trend was calculated for the linear regression analysis tests across the groups. P values were for analysis of variance or χ2 analyses across the groups.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase ; AST, aspartate aminotransferase ; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HTN, hypertension; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WC, waist circumference; γ-GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase.