Table 2

Characteristics of the communities (n=384)

nMean (SD)Minimum, maximum
Community-level social capital*
 Civic participation3840.15 (0.90)−2.57, 3.51
 Social cohesion384−0.09 (0.95)−3.11, 2.88
 Reciprocity384−0.02 (0.87)−3.74, 2.11
Urbanisation†
 Rural58
 Suburban40
 Urban286
Ageing rate‡
 Low134
 Middle129
 High121
Rate of low-level education§
 Low142
 Middle117
 High125
  • *Factor score.

  • †Defined by population density (persons/km2 in an inhabitable area): rural, <1000; suburban, 1000–1500 and urban, ≥1500 persons/km2.

  • ‡Defined by the percentage of people aged 65 years or older: low, 17.3%–19.8%; middle, 19.9%–21.8%; high, 22.0%–47.6%.

  • §Defined by the percentage of people who had graduated only from junior high school: low, 5.2%–10.1%; middle, 11.0%–16.4%; high, 16.4%–38.0%.