Table 3

Association between UF and diagnosis of mental health outcomes, stratified by symptom-based UF phenotypes


No diagnosed UF
Diagnosed UF phenotype
No bleeding or painHeavy bleeding only*Pain only†Bleeding and pain
n627 539110 259100 00186 65095 889
Depression
 Events, n46 1038352815872308331
 Rate per 1000 person-years27.826.628.632.333.1
 Age-matched HR (95% CI)1.0 (Ref)0.95 (0.93 to 0.98)1.08 (1.05 to 1.11)1.18 (1.15 to 1.21)1.26 (1.23 to 1.30)
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)‡1.0 (Ref)1.00 (0.97 to 1.02)1.09 (1.06 to 1.12)1.16 (1.12 to 1.19)1.21 (1.18 to 1.25)
Anxiety
 Events, n60 68311 01110 257986811 106
 Rate per 1000 person-years37.335.936.645.345.2
 Age-matched HR (95% CI)1.0 (Ref)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)1.03 (1.01 to 1.06)1.18 (1.15 to 1.21)1.21 (1.19 to 1.24)
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)‡1.0 (Ref)1.03 (1.00 to 1.05)1.06 (1.04 to 1.09)1.17 (1.14 to 1.20)1.18 (1.15 to 1.21)
Self-directed violence
 Events, n616122141157179
 Rate per 1000 person-years0.30.40.50.60.7
 Age-matched HR (95% CI)1.0 (Ref)1.04 (0.84 to 1.30)1.29 (1.04 to 1.59)1.86 (1.50 to 2.31)1.87 (1.52 to 2.29)
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)‡1.0 (Ref)0.98 (0.78 to 1.23)1.16 (0.93 to 1.44)1.66 (1.33 to 2.08)1.68 (1.35 to 2.09)
  • *Heavy bleeding defined as heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia or menometrorrhagia), anaemia or blood transfusion.

  • †Pain defined as dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia or pelvic pain.

  • ‡HR adjusted for race, region of residence, allergic rhinitis, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), eczema, chronic low back pain, fatigue, vitamin D deficiency, chronic headaches/migraines, thyroid disease, hypothyroidism, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, fibromyalgia, live birth and use of antihypertensives, corticosteroids, non-opioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, combined hormonal contraceptives, statins, oral progestin, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or progestogen-releasing intrauterine system.

  • UF, uterine fibroid.