Table 3

Differences in psychological distress by area deprivation among young adults aged 16-24 living in England, considering economic changes since before the outbreak, UKHLS, April–November 2020

Baseline model (n=1069)
B (95% CI)
Model+job loss (n=1069)
B (95% CI)
Area deprivation
 Most deprived2.10 (0.88 to 3.32)1.75 (0.52 to 2.98)
 Second most deprived0.78 (−0.23 to 1.78)0.70 (−0.31 to 1.72)
 Second least deprived0.15 (−0.61 to 0.91)−0.13 (−0.91 to 0.64)
 Least deprived (reference)
Change since before outbreak
 Did not lose job or ≥50% hours (reference)
 Lost job or ≥50% hours1.52 (1.01 to 2.02)
 Started job−2.65 (−3.58 to −1.72)
 Did not work at both points0.37 (−0.39 to 1.30)
  • Estimates represent betas from random-intercept linear models using the UKHLS COVID-19 November 2020 longitudinal weight. The models controlled for wave, age, sex, parental education, living arrangements, ethnicity and GHQ score at wave 10.

  • Significant estimates at p<0.05 are in bold.

  • GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; UKHLS, UK Household Longitudinal Study.