Table 2

NPI usage and camper and staff number and COVID-19 cases

NPITotal number*No with/of confirmed casesRisk ratio (95% CI)†
CampsCampers‡CampsCampersStaffCampersStaff
Pre-camp quarantine at home
 CampersYes9726 3111716402.82 (1.36, 5.86)**2.86 (1.80, 4.55)***
No28560 254541332
Missing104
 StaffYes10325 7011616393.07 (1.45, 6.49)**2.81 (1.76, 4.48)***
No27859 196531232
Missing105
Pre-camp quarantine at camp
 CampersYes1875807070.00 (0.00, -)1.07 (0.49, 2.34)
No33772 038592762
Missing131
 StaffYes7325 151109261.18 (0.53, 2.62)1.39 (0.86, 2.26)
No29359 225571844
Missing120
Facial coverings
 CampersAlways12630 88313560.36 (0.14, 0.95)**0.17 (0.08, 0.40)***
Not always25556 176592563
Missing105
 StaffAlways26860 6825614330.39 (0.19, 0.80)**0.38 (0.24, 0.60)***
Not always12227 117181638
Missing96
Decreased capacity
Always32656 8386324631.44 (0.59, 3.52)3.77 (1.63, 8.72)**
Not always3920 429966
Missing121
Physical distancing
Always25757 1835611400.31 (0.15, 0.65)**0.67 (0.42, 1.07)
Not always13330 616181932
Missing96
Use of cohorts, pods, bubbles
Always30163 5016518480.39 (0.19, 0.82)**0.63 (0.37, 1.06)
Not always4916 65361220
Missing136
Modified programmes to allow for physical distancing
Always29261 2895913590.30 (0.15, 0.61)**0.52 (0.32, 0.82)**
Not always9123 895151731
Missing103
 Decreased visitors, including parents
Always30870 8967027681.39 (0.42, 4.57)2.62 (0.96, 7.18)
Sometimes4710 922434
Missing131
 Increased cleaning frequency
Always37180 9976927690.71 (0.21, 2.33)2.71 (0.66, 11.03)
Not always186352432
Missing97
Regular hand hygiene
Always37481 2477127710.72 (0.22, 2.37)5.68 (0.79, 40.87)
Not always156499331
Missing97
 Altered dining to decrease numbers or increase physical distancing
Always25765 3656023600.24 (0.09, 0.63)**1.57 (0.38, 6.40)
Not always243411452
Missing205
 Changed or increased bathroom facilities
Always16039 463317310.34 (0.15, 0.80)**0.90 (0.56, 1.47)
Not always13940 301192135
Missing187
  • **p<0.05; ***p<0.001

  • *Does not include camps that did not report data for examined NPI.

  • †Risk ratio for always versus not always. Risk ratios for staffers determined using number of campers as denominator.

  • ‡Number of campers estimated from unique number of on-site campers.

  • NPI, non-pharmaceutical intervention.