Table 1

Psychological distress among young adults aged 16–24 living in England

SubgroupsMean GHQ-12 score (range: 0–36)
Full sample
2009–2010 (n=4587)2018–2019 (n=2333)April–November 2020 (n=2382)
Economic activity
 FT employed10.111.213.0
 PT employed10.212.314.0
 FT education10.011.713.2
 Out of labour force12.515.816.1
Living arrangements
 With parent(s)
 Not with parent(s)10.912.513.7
Parental education
 No degree10.212.214.3
Area deprivation
 Most deprived10.212.215.4
 Second most deprived10.512.013.9
 Second least deprived10.512.313.7
 Least deprived10.111.713.3
 White UK10.412.314.0
 White other10.512.614.6
 Pakistani and Bangladeshi10.210.613.3
  • Understanding Society, 2009–2010, 2018–2019 and 2020.

  • GHQ scores that differed across categories at p<0.05 are in bold.

  • FT, full time; GHQ-12, 12-Item General Health Questionnaire; PT, part time.