Table 1

HRs and excess HRs of death by multivariable Cox and flexible parametric model for patients with colon cancer, England, January 2010–March 2013

Colon (n=38 070)Multivariable Cox modelMultivariable FPM with TVCsMultivariable FPM with TVCs
Overall survivalOverall survivalNet survival
Adjusted HR*95% CIAdjusted HR*95% CIAdjusted EHR*95% CI
 1 (affluent)ReferenceReferenceReference
 21.030.97 to to to 1.08
 31.040.99 to to to 1.07
 41.131.07 to to to 1.16
 5 (deprived)1.151.09 to to to 1.15
 Female0.940.91 to 0.98
Age groupTVCTVC
 65–801.431.37 to 1.50
 80<2.322.20 to 2.43
Cancer site†TVCTVC
 Right-sided colonReference
 Transverse colon1.010.96 to 1.07
 Left-sided colon0.800.76 to 0.83
 Overlapping or unspecified1.080.99 to 1.17
Stage at diagnosisTVCTVC
 II1.691.36 to 2.11
 III3.332.69 to 4.12
 IV11.109.05 to 13.62
Tumour gradeTVCTVC
 G3/G41.731.67 to 1.80
Emergency presentationTVCTVC
 Yes1.891.82 to 1.96
Received major resectionTVCTVC
 No3.052.92 to 3.18
Number of chronic comorbidities
 11.211.15 to to to 1.30
 2+1.651.49 to 1.821.641.48 to 1.811.691.49 to 1.91
Number of acute comorbiditiesTVCTVC
 11.231.17 to 1.29
 2+1.661.51 to 1.82
  • Calculated for complete cases only.

  • *All variables are mutually adjusted. For SES only, adjusted HRs/EHRs are shown without interaction between SES and stage. For other variables, interaction between SES and stage is adjusted.

  • †Right-sided colon includes ascending colon, hepatic flexure and caecum. Transverse colon includes transverse colon and splenic flexure. Left-sided colon includes descending colon and sigmoid colon.

  • EHR, excess hazard ratio; FPM, flexible parametric model; HR, hazard ratio; SES, socioeconomic status; TVC, time-varying covariate.