Table 2

First-time fathers’ psychiatric hospitalisation rates 0–36 months after child’s birthdate, pooled by birthdate before (1992–1994) and after (1995–1997) the 1995 Father’s quota, Sweden (n=198 589)

SampleBaseline*Rates†Slopes‡
ExpectedObservedStepwise (rate) changePre-reformPost-reformSlope change
nRate95% CIRate95% CIRate95% CIIRD95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CIIRR95% CI
Swedish-born165 7212.792.04 to 3.802.902.15 to 3.642.471.83 to 3.11–0.42–1.44 to 0.590.850.59 to 1.241.000.99 to 1.011.000.99 to 1.011.000.98 to 1.02
Migrant32 8683.912.73 to 5.606.554.89 to 8.214.163.24 to 5.08–2.39–4.12 to –0.660.640.47 to 0.861.011.00 to 1.030.980.97 to 0.990.970.95 to 0.99
By region of origin
 OECD17 1325.894.11 to 8.445.462.35 to 8.573.602.16 to 5.04–1.87–4.34 to 0.600.660.42 to 1.031.000.98 to 1.020.990.97 to 1.010.990.96 to 1.03
 Non-OECD15 7362.111.00 to 4.449.152.11 to 16.184.552.47 to 6.63–4.60–12.39 to 3.190.500.19 to 1.331.041.00 to 1.080.980.96 to 1.000.940.90 to 0.98
By duration of residence
 <5 years11 7273.632.05 to 6.434.971.25 to 8.682.010.44 to 3.59–2.95–7.05 to 1.150.410.13 to 1.231.010.98 to 1.041.010.97 to 1.051.000.96 to 1.05
 ≥5 years12 6933.612.13 to 6.1412.619.33 to 15.9012.268.14 to 16.37–0.36–5.58 to 4.860.970.64 to 1.481.031.01 to 1.060.960.94 to 0.980.930.90 to 0.95
By partners’ nativity
 Migrant partner22 2653.111.90 to 5.097.624.63 to 10.611.751.13 to 2.365.87–8.89 to –2.850.230.14 to 0.381.021.00 to 1.051.010.99 to 1.030.990.96 to 1.01
 Swedish-born partner10 6034.331.85 to 10.127.022.13 to 11.9010.455.00 to 15.903.43–4.12 to 10.991.490.60 to 3.651.010.97 to 1.050.960.93 to 0.990.950.90 to 0.99
  • Rates are expressed as hospitalisation events per 1000 person-years. CIs are calculated with Huber-White-Sandwich SE, unless autocorrelation is present, when calculated using lag-adjusted Newey-West SE. All models are adjusted for seasonality.

  • *Baseline rate corresponds to adjusted rate for fathers of children born in January 1992 (main regression model).

  • †Expected rate corresponds to adjusted rate for fathers of children born in January 1995, had the pre-reform slope continued uninterrupted (post-estimation). Observed rate corresponds to adjusted rate for fathers of children born in January 1995, based on post-reform slope (post-estimation). Stepwise (rate) change is calculated as the IRD (post-estimation) and IRR (main regression model) of observed versus expected rates in January 1995.

  • ‡Pre-reform slope corresponds to adjusted slope for fathers of children born from January 1992 to December 1994 (main regression model). Post-reform slope corresponds to adjusted slope for fathers of children born from January 1995 to December 1997 (post-estimation). Slope change is calculated as the IRR of post-reform and pre-reform slopes (main regression model).

  • IRD, incidence rate difference; IRR, incidence rate ratio; OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.