Table 4

Association between career characteristics and AL index for men (n=42 386): negative binomial regression coefficients (β), confidence intervals, p values and AMEs

Model 1Model 2
βCI (95%)P valueAMEβCI (95%)P valueAME
Temporary jobs (per 10 years in paid work)No temporary job (ref.)
One or less temporary job0.003(−0.020 to 0.026)0.7850.0080.000(−0.023 to 0.023)0.9720.001
More than one temporary job0.038(−0.014 to 0.090)0.149−0.094−0.009(−0.064 to 0.046)0.758−0.021
Job changes (per 10 years in paid work)No change (ref.)
Two or less changes0.008(−0.006 to 0.023)0.2720.020−0.006(−0.022 to 0.011)0.500−0.013
More than two changes0.022(−0.003 to 0.046)0.0800.053−0.030(−0.059 to −0.001)0.039−0.073
Number of unemployment periodsNo unemployment period (ref.)
One unemployment period0.022(−0.003 to 0.046)0.0830.0530.008(−0.020 to 0.037)0.5540.020
2+ unemployment periods0.069(0.021 to 0.117)0.0050.1710.031(−0.020 to 0.083)0.2280.077
Years out of workNo years out of work (ref.)
1–5 years out of work0.003(−0.014 to 0.019)0.7630.0060.001(−0.019 to 0.020)0.9480.002
6+ years out of work0.077(0.052 to 0.101)<0.0010.1900.071(0.043 to 0.098)<0.0010.175
Mode occupational positionLarge employers to higher managers and professionals (ref.)
Lower managers and professionals0.022(−0.001 to 0.045)0.0600.0500.023(−0.001 to 0.046)0.0560.052
Intermediate employee0.066(0.040 to 0.091)<0.0010.1540.066(0.040 to 0.091)<0.0010.154
Small employers and self-employed0.132(0.088 to 0.176)<0.0010.3180.122(0.078 to 0.166)<0.0010.293
Lower-grade white collar workers0.110(0.065 to 0.156)<0.0010.2630.101(0.055 to 0.146)<0.0010.239
Skilled workers0.106(0.077 to 0.134)<0.0010.2520.106(0.078 to 0.135)<0.0010.253
Semiskilled or unskilled workers0.154(0.121 to 0.187)<0.0010.3760.152(0.119 to 0.185)<0.0010.370
Main position unknown0.070(0.047 to 0.093)<0.0010.1630.076(0.053 to 0.100)<0.0010.179
Lack of promotionPromotion (ref.)
No promotion−0.019(−0.036 to −0.003)0.023−0.046−0.034(−0.052 to −0.016)<0.001−0.082
Failed promotion0.047(0.009 to 0.084)0.0160.1160.033(−0.005 to 0.072)0.0920.083
  • Note: All models are based on multilevel models (individuals nested in health examination centre, adjusted for age, age square, partnership situation and education) (complete case analyses). Model 1 is calculated for each career characteristic separately (separate models). Model 2 includes all career characteristics simultaneously (simultaneous model).

  • Respondents who retired or had a health-related career interruption prior to age 45 are excluded from the analyses.

  • AL, allostatic load; AME, average marginal effect; ref., reference.