Table 2

SARS-CoV-2 infection by socioeconomic position among adults in Germany, October 2020–February 2021

% (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)†p value
Seropositive
Education
Low1.80 (1.19 to 2.71)2.32 (1.18 to 4.53)0.014
Middle0.98 (0.67 to 1.43)1.20 (0.69 to 2.08)0.527
High1.01 (0.69 to 1.50)Ref.
Income
<60% of median2.04 (1.12 to 3.70)1.56 (0.77 to 3.17)0.220
60%−<150% of median1.20 (0.87 to 1.66)1.02 (0.58 to 1.79)0.945
≥150% of median1.02 (0.69 to 1.52)Ref.
Seropositive/PCR positive
Education
Low2.05 (1.37 to 3.07)2.03 (1.10 to 3.75)0.024
Middle1.46 (1.04 to 2.05)1.45 (0.89 to 2.37)0.140
High1.21 (0.85 to 1.72)Ref.
Income
<60% of median2.69 (1.29 to 5.51)1.58 (0.77 to 3.26)0.213
60%−<150% of median1.53 (1.15 to 2.04)1.09 (0.65 to 1.82)0.746
≥150% of median1.18 (0.82 to 1.70)Ref.
Previously tested positive
Education
Low1.39 (0.82 to 2.35)1.68 (0.76 to 3.69)0.197
Middle0.84 (0.54 to 1.29)0.87 (0.43 to 1.76)0.694
High1.17 (0.74 to 1.86)Ref.
Income
<60% of median1.99 (0.94 to 4.17)1.42 (0.61 to 3.30)0.418
60%−<150% of median0.98 (0.68 to 1.42)0.82 (0.40 to 1.69)0.596
≥150% of median1.06 (0.59 to 1.88)Ref.
Seropositive/PCR positive or previously tested positive
Education
Low2.44 (1.71 to 3.48)1.87 (1.06 to 3.29)0.029
Middle1.78 (1.31 to 2.42)1.29 (0.78 to 2.14)0.315
High1.68 (1.18 to 2.39)Ref.
Income
<60% of median3.64 (2.10 to 6.24)1.65 (0.89 to 3.05)0.112
60%−<150% of median1.81 (1.39 to 2.33)0.95 (0.57 to 1.56)0.827
≥150% of median1.63 (1.09 to 2.43)Ref.
Undetected infection
Education
Low1.00 (0.60 to 1.66)2.17 (0.90 to 5.25)0.085
Middle0.91 (0.58 to 1.43)2.27 (1.03 to 5.00)0.042
High0.51 (0.29 to 0.89)Ref.
Income
<60% of median1.56 (0.75 to 3.24)1.77 (0.81 to 3.83)0.150
60%−<150% of median0.77 (0.52 to 1.13)1.03 (0.54 to 1.96)0.855
≥150% of median0.64 (0.41 to 1.00)Ref.
  • *Prevalence (weighted).

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, household size, migrant background, urban–rural residence, region (east/west), date of participation and dummies for missing values (separate models for education and income).

  • ‡Self-reported positive throat swab test before study participation.

  • Ref, reference group.