Table 3

Associations of long-term exposure to road traffic PM2.5 and residential wood combustion PM2.5 with the prevalence of depression, calculated for a 1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (N=5895)

ModelExposureOR (95% CI)
Crude model*Residential wood smoke PM2.5 0.76 (0.44 to 1.31), p=0.32
Road traffic PM2.5 1.54 (1.10 to 2.14), p=0.01
Main model†Residential wood smoke PM2.5 0.78 (0.43 to 1.41), p=0.41
Road traffic PM2.5 1.23 (0.86 to 1.73), p=0.26
Single-pollutant models†Residential wood smoke PM2.5 0.69 (0.39 to 1.19), p=0.19
Road traffic PM2.5 1.29 (0.93 to 1.79), p=0.12
  • *Crude model adjusted for road traffic noise, green space within 1 km, age and sex; both residential wood smoke and road traffic PM2.5 included in the model as exposures.

  • †Main model and single-pollutant models adjusted for marital status, employment status, annual household income, education, daily smoking, weekly physical exercise, area-level unemployment and area-level income, in addition to adjustments of the crude model; both residential wood smoke and road traffic PM2.5 included in the model as exposures.

  • PM2.5, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm.