Table 2

HRs and excess HRs of death by multivariable Cox and flexible parametric model for patients with rectal cancer, England, January 2010–March 2013

Rectum (n=22 631)Multivariable Cox modelMultivariable FPM with TVCsMultivariable FPM with TVCs
Overall survivalOverall survivalNet survival
Adjusted HR*95% CIAdjusted HR*95% CIAdjusted EHR*95% CI
SES
 1 (affluent)ReferenceReferenceReference
 20.970.90 to 1.040.970.90 to 1.040.950.87 to 1.04
 31.050.97 to 1.131.050.97 to 1.131.020.93 to 1.12
 41.040.96 to 1.121.040.97 to 1.121.000.91 to 1.09
 5 (deprived)1.171.08 to 1.271.171.08 to 1.271.111.01 to 1.22
Sex
 MaleReferenceReferenceReference
 Female0.910.87 to 0.960.910.87 to 0.960.970.91 to 1.03
Age groupTVCTVC
 <65Reference
 65–801.601.51 to 1.70
 80<2.972.78 to 3.17
Year of diagnosis
 2010ReferenceReferenceReference
 20110.970.91 to 1.030.960.91 to 1.030.990.92 to 1.07
 20120.890.84 to 0.950.890.84 to 0.950.910.85 to 0.98
 20130.930.83 to 1.030.940.84 to 1.041.010.89 to 1.14
Cancer siteTVCTVC
 Rectosigmoid junctionReference
 Rectum0.890.84 to 0.95
 Overlapping or unspecified0.700.47 to 1.04
Stage at diagnosis
 IReferenceReferenceReference
 II2.371.85 to 3.022.381.87 to 3.046.132.98 to 12.62
 III3.262.61 to 4.073.292.64 to 4.1110.024.98 to 20.15
 IV10.108.18 to 12.4710.138.20 to 12.5135.8017.94 to 71.43
Tumour gradeTVCTVC
 G1/G2Reference
 G3/G41.801.70 to 1.91
Emergency presentationTVCTVC
 NoReference
 Yes1.811.70 to 1.93
Received major resection
 YesReferenceReferenceReference
 No2.892.73 to 3.052.882.72 to 3.043.623.37 to 3.89
Number of chronic comorbidities
 0ReferenceReferenceReference
 11.381.28 to 1.491.371.27 to 1.481.391.26 to 1.53
 2+1.991.72 to 2.311.961.70 to 2.272.141.79 to 2.55
Number of acute comorbidities
 0ReferenceReferenceReference
 11.321.22 to 1.421.311.21 to 1.411.361.23 to 1.49
 2+1.751.50 to 2.051.751.50 to 2.051.881.56 to 2.27
  • Calculated for complete cases only.

  • *All variables are mutually adjusted. For SES only, adjusted HRs/EHRs are shown without interaction between SES and stage. For other variables, interaction between SES and stage is adjusted.

  • EHR, excess hazard ratio; FPM, flexible parametric model; HR, hazard ratio; NA, not applicable (not included in multivariable model); SES, socioeconomic status; TVC, time-varying covariate.