Table 2

Multilevel multinomial logistic regression model for the association between family income, neighbourhood income and underweight, overweight and obesity categories compared with normal weight in children aged 0–12 years

Exposure variableModel 1 (adjusted for child age, sex, number of family members, maternal ethnicity)
OR (95% CI)
Model 2 (adjusted for all variables in model 1 plus adjustment for family or neighborhood-level income variables)*
OR (95% CI)
Underweight (zBMI<−2)Overweight (1<zBMI ≤2)Obesity (zBMI>2)Underweight (zBMI<−2)Overweight (1<zBMI≤2)Obesity (zBMI>2)
Family income ($C)
 Q1 (<$70 244)0.81 (0.51 to 1.29)1.13 (0.85 to 1.51)4.69 (2.65 to 8.29)0.73 (0.45 to 1.20)1.20 (0.89 to 1.62)4.36 (2.40 to 7.90)
 Q2 ($70 244–1 16 236)0.87 (0.55 to 1.37)1.02 (0.78 to 1.34)2.69 (1.51 to 4.79)0.81 (0.51 to 1.28)1.06 (0.80 to 1.40)2.64 (1.47 to 4.74)
 Q3 ($1 16 237–1 63 081)1.12 (0.73 to 1.73)1.06 (0.81 to 1.38)2.42 (1.35 to 4.34)1.07 (0.69 to 1.66)1.09 (0.83 to 1.42)2.38 (1.31 to 4.30)
 Q4 ($1 63 082–2 21 438)0.82 (0.51 to 1.30)0.92 (0.70 to 1.20)1.72 (0.94 to 3.16)0.79 (0.49 to 1.26)0.93 (0.71 to 1.22)1.71 (0.93 to 3.15)
 Q5 (>$221 438)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Neighbourhood-level income ($C)
 Q1 (<$62 336)1.26 (0.78 to 2.03)0.90 (0.68 to 1.20)2.18 (1.33 to 3.58)1.38 (0.83 to 2.27)0.84 (0.63 to 1.13)1.39 (0.83 to 2.34)
 Q2 ($62 336–80 383)1.56 (0.98 to 2.50)0.87 (0.66 to 1.15)1.23 (0.72 to 2.11)1.65 (1.02 to 2.67)0.84 (0.63 to 1.11)0.89 (0.52 to 1.54)
 Q3 ($80 384–96 109)0.95 (0.57 to 1.58)0.82 (0.62 to 1.08)1.35 (0.80 to 2.30)0.98 (0.59 to 1.65)0.79 (0.60 to 1.05)1.03 (0.60 to 1.76)
 Q4 ($96 110–1 16 607)1.49 (0.93 to 2.39)0.96 (0.74 to 1.25)1.39 (0.83 to 2.32)1.54 (0.95 to 2.48)0.94 (0.72 to 1.23)1.12 (0.67 to 1.89)
 Q5 (>$116 607)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Material deprivation (quintiles)
 Q1 (most deprived)1.08 (0.67 to 1.74)1.33 (0.99 to 1.78)2.45 (1.52 to 3.95)1.14 (0.68 to 1.89)1.29 (0.95 to 1.76)1.56 (0.94 to 2.58)
 Q21.22 (0.77 to 1.94)1.11 (0.83 to 1.47)1.75 (1.08 to 2.83)1.26 (0.79 to 2.03)1.09 (0.81 to 1.50)1.29 (0.79 to 2.11)
 Q31.27 (0.82 to 1.96)1.11 (0.86 to 1.44)1.32 (0.82 to 2.12)1.31 (0.84 to 2.05)1.10 (0.85 to 1.43)1.03 (0.64 to 1.67)
 Q41.67 (1.12 to 2.49)1.10 (0.86 to 1.39)0.94 (0.58 to 1.52)1.69 (1.13 to 2.52)1.09 (0.86 to 1.39)0.82 (0.51 to 1.34)
 Q5 (least deprived)1.001.001.001.001.001.00
  • *Model 2 for self-reported family income is adjusted for all variables in model 1 plus neighbourhood income; model 2 for neighbourhood income level is adjusted for all variables in model 1 plus family income; model 2 for material deprivation is adjusted for all variables in model 1 plus self-reported family income. Normal weight (−2≤zBMI≤1) is the reference category for the dependent variable.

  • BMI, body mass index; $C, Canadian dollars; zBMI, BMI z-scores.