Table 3

Multilevel multinomial logistic regression model for the discordant and concordant categories of family income, neighbourhood income and deprivation in relation to underweight, overweight and obesity categories compared with normal weight in children aged 0–12 years

Exposure variableModel 1 (adjusted for child age, sex, number of family members, maternal ethnicity)
OR (95% CI)
Underweight (zBMI<−2)Overweight (1<zBMI≤2)Obesity (zBMI>2)
Family income and neighbourhood income
 Low and low0.94 (0.58 to 1.52)1.36 (0.99 to 1.86)3.28 (2.08 to 5.18)
 Low and higher0.77 (0.48 to 1.22)0.92 (0.68 to 1.25)2.05 (1.32 to 3.19)
 Higher and low0.95 (0.62 to 1.46)0.76 (0.56 to 1.04)1.37 (0.84 to 2.24)
 Higher and higher1.001.001.00
Family income and neighbourhood deprivation
 Low and low*0.83 (1.49 to 1.42)1.61 (1.15 to 2.24)3.39 (2.09 to 5.50)
 Low and higher0.83 (0.54 to 1.27)0.91 (0.68 to 1.21)2.14 (1.41 to 3.23)
 Higher and low0.81 (0.46 to 1.42)0.91 (0.63 to 1.31)1.61 (0.90 to 2.91)
 Higher and higher1.001.001.00
  • Underweight=zBMI<−2, normal weight=−2≤zBMI≤1, overweight=1<zBMI≤2. Normal weight is the reference category for the dependent variable.

  • *Low was defined as Q1 and higher was defined as Q2–Q5, where low deprivation score represents the most deprived. The multiplicative interaction between family and neighbourhood income had a p value of 0.09 and for family income and deprivation the p value for interaction was 0.12.

  • BMI, body mass index; zBMI, BMI z-scores.