Table 3

Meta-analysis for the associations between being a key worker and outcomes

OutcomenStudy heterogeneityOR (95% CI)P valueEgger’s test p value
I2 QP value
COVID-19 infection*11 07654.72%6.630.0851.43 (1.22 to 1.68) <0.0001 0.801
Change in financial situation†10 6490.00%1.730.6310.32 (0.24 to 0.65) <0.0001 0.534
Change in trust in government‡10 23629.57%4.260.2351.00 (0.89 to 1.11)0.9320.126
Change in conflict§10 23429.86%4.280.2331.19 (1.03 to 1.37) 0.016 0.137
Change in household composition¶10 73644.96%5.450.1420.98 (0.85 to 1.12)0.7430.073
Change in psychological distress**987734.71%4.600.2040.95 (0.85 to 1.05)0.3200.293
Change in alcohol consumption††10 26962.46%7.99 0.046 0.88 (0.79 to 0.98) 0.022 0.052
Change in smoking‡‡11 07624.09%3.950.2570.60 (0.44 to 0.80) 0.005 0.144
Change in sleep duration§§10 37161.75%7.84 0.049 1.06 (0.94 to 1.19)0.3500.245
  • All analyses used a random-effects model meta-analysis. Significant p values which persisted at a false discovery rate of 0.05 are highlighted in bold.

  • *COVID-19 infection was coded as 0=no, 1=yes.

  • †Change in financial situation was coded as 0=same or better, 1=worse.

  • ‡Change in trust in government was coded as 0=same or more, 1=less.

  • §Change in conflict during lockdown was coded as 0=less, 1=same or more.

  • ¶Change in household composition during lockdown was coded as 0=no, 1=yes.

  • **Change in psychological distress during lockdown was coded as 1=an increase in the mental health score, 0=same or lower score.

  • ††Change in alcohol consumption was coded as 1=more drinks per week during lockdown compared with pre-lockdown or 0=same or lower.

  • ‡‡Change in smoking was coded as 0=same or less cigarettes smoked during lockdown compared with before lockdown, 1=more cigarettes.

  • §§Change in sleep duration was coded as 0=same or more hours slept during lockdown and 1=less hours slept during lockdown.