Table 1

Sample characteristics, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1985–2015

Panel A: demographicsMean (SD) or %
Head of household race
Age (years)43.7 (15.7)
Head of household married53.2
Education (completed)
 Less than high school19.4
 Completed high school37.6
 Completed some college22.4
 Completed college20.7
Number of children0.9 (1.2)
Household pre-tax earned income* (US$)50 423 (73 175)
Eligible for EITC31.7
EITC refund amount* (US$)1701 (1577)
Panel B: outcomesMean (SD) or %No. person-years
Psychological distress3.5 (4.1)59 734
Very good/excellent overall health53.3289 611
Currently drink alcohol60.2116 066
Consume three or more drinks per day13.9115 015
Currently smoke21.3127 246
Cigarettes per day2.9 (7.2)126 944
  • N=34 824 persons, 289 877 person-years.

  • *Inflation-adjusted.

  • EITC, earned income tax credit.