Table 3

Changes in health status between adults who did and did not receive EIP at 3-month follow-up

Health statusReceived EIP by follow-up, n=149Did not receive EIP, n=408Panel data: fixed effect regression†, n=552
Baseline3-month follow-upBaseline3-month follow-up
Financial distress score0.30 (0.90)0.41 (1.01)0.29 (0.81)0.33 (0.91)0.05‡ (−0.11 to 0.21)
Number of medical conditions2.69 (1.69)2.27 (1.65)1.91 (1.90)1.83 (1.54)−0.35*‡ (−0.54 to −0.16)
PCL-5 scores15.65 (21.13)16.84 (21.18)16.78 (18.78)15.05 (18.40)2.20*‡ (0.22 to 4.17)
PHQ-2 scores1.22 (1.83)1.39 (1.88)1.46 (1.86)1.30 (1.86)0.26*‡ (0.04 to 0.48)
GAD-2 scores1.11 (1.81)1.15 (1.91)1.51 (1.82)1.34 (1.77)0.17‡ (−0.05 to 0.38)
AUDIT-C scores2.19 (2.40)3.79 (2.17)1.93 (2.38)4.06 (1.95)−0.46*‡ (−0.91 to −0.00)
Any illicit drug use in the past month26 (51.2)32 (13.0)54 (9.5)33 (6.4)2.22§ (0.37 to 13.47)
Any suicidal ideation in the past 2 weeks42 (14.6)57 (18.7)108 (18.9)97 (16.1)6.83*§ (1.89 to 24.71)
  • Health status was measured after EIP receipt and other covariates included in the analysis (age, marital status, number of minors at home, employment status, income, veteran status, social support score, COVID-19 positive screen, psychiatric history and survey wave) occurred before or concurrently with measurement of health status.

  • *P<0.05.

  • †All fixed effect regressions were adjusted for age, marital status, number of minors at home, employment status, income, veteran status, MOS social support score, COVID-19 positive screen, psychiatric history and survey wave.

  • ‡Regression coefficients from fixed effects linear regression with 95% CI.

  • §OR from fixed effect logistic regression with 95% CI.

  • AUDIT-C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption; EIP, economic impact payment; GAD-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2; MOS, Medical Outcomes Study; PCL-5, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; PHQ-2, Patient Health Questionnaire-2.