Table 1

Cohort characteristics. DRIVE cohort, NSW, Australia, 2003–2016

CharacteristicValueHighest SES (n=5135)Second quartile (n=5136)Third quartile (n=5453)Lowest SES (n=5082)Total (n=20 806)
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Age (years)172246 (43.7)2438 (47.5)2831 (51.9)2613 (51.4)10 128 (48.7)
18–192069 (40.3)1942 (37.8)1938 (35.6)1792 (35.3)7741 (37.2)
20–24820 (16.0)756 (14.7)684 (12.54)677 (13.3)2937 (14.1)
GenderWomen2683 (52.3)2846 (55.4)2983 (54.7)2845 (56.0)11 357 (54.6)
Men2452 (47.7)2290 (44.6)2470 (45.3)2237 (44.0)9449 (45.4)
RemotenessMetropolitan5034 (98.0)4214 (82.1)3182 (58.3)3033 (59.7)15 463 (74.3)
Inner regional100 (2.0)854 (16.6)2027 (37.2)1418 (27.9)4399 (21.2)
Outer regional/remote1 (0.0)68 (1.3)244 (4.5)631 (12.4)944 (4.5)
Attempts driver test13249 (63.3)3371 (65.6)3602 (66.1)3266 (64.3)13 488 (64.8)
21276 (24.8)1152 (22.4)1300 (23.8)1234 (24.3)4962 (23.9)
3 or more599 (11.7)601 (11.7)531 (9.7)557 (11.0)2288 (11.0)
Missing11 (0.2)12 (0.2)20 (0.4)25 (0.5)68 (0.3)
Time on learner licence<1 year1822 (35.5)1944 (37.9)2171 (39.8)1997 (39.3)7934 (38.1)
1–1.5 years1803 (35.1)1826 (35.6)1930 (35.4)1857 (36.5)7416 (35.6)
>1.5 years1493 (29.1)1354 (26.4)1330 (24.4)1198 (23.6)5375 (25.8)
Missing17 (0.3)12 (0.2)22 (0.4)30 (0.6)81 (0.4)
Crash before studyNo4994 (97.2)4972 (96.8)5253 (96.3)4893 (96.3)20 112 (96.7)
Yes141 (2.8)164 (3.2)200 (3.7)189 (3.7)694 (3.3)
Self-rated driving ability compared with other driversMuch better883 (17.2)909 (17.7)989 (18.1)953 (18.8)3734 (18.0)
Better2236 (43.5)2148 (41.8)2301 (42.2)2083 (41.0)8768 (42.1)
Same1800 (35.1)1814 (35.3)1856 (34.0)1780 (35.0)7250 (34.9)
Worse or much worse90 (1.8)88 (1.7)94 (1.7)70 (1.4)342 (1.6)
Missing126 (2.5)177 (3.4)213 (3.9)196 (3.9)712 (3.4)
Lessons with professional driving instructor (hours)Mean (SD)10.6 (14.8)9.5 (15.8)8.6 (13.6)8.3 (13.7)9.2 (14.6)
Average driving (hours/week)Mean (SD)6.8 (7.7)8.7 (11.9)9.2 (15.5)10.2 (18.3)8.7 (14.0)
Alcohol audit summary score0–64366 (85.0)4298 (83.7)4544 (83.3)4250 (83.6)17 458 (83.9)
>6648 (12.6)676 (13.2)696 (12.8)640 (12.6)2660 (12.8)
Missing121 (2.4)162 (3.1)213 (3.9)192 (3.8)688 (3.3)
Cannabis smoking in last 12 monthsNever4226 (82.3)4282 (83.4)4517 (82.8)4256 (83.7)17 281 (83.1)
Once a month or less606 (11.8)512 (10.0)534 (9.8)445 (8.8)2097 (10.1)
2–4 times a month116 (2.3)97 (1.9)87 (1.6)100 (2.0)400 (1.9)
2–3 or 4+ per week61 (1.2)74 (1.4)89 (1.6)73 (1.4)297 (1.4)
Missing126 (2.4)171 (3.3)226 (4.1)208 (4.1)731 (3.5)
Self-harm in past 12 monthsNo4508 (87.8)4455 (86.7)4647 (85.2)4380 (86.2)17 990 (86.5)
Yes354 (6.9)391 (7.6)423 (7.8)374 (7.4)1542 (7.4)
Missing273 (5.3)290 (5.7)383 (7.0)328 (6.4)1274 (6.1)
Risk takingLow1660 (32.3)1699 (33.1)1845 (33.8)1652 (32.5)6856 (33.0)
Medium1636 (31.9)1588 (30.9)1650 (30.3)1587 (31.2)6461 (31.1)
High1652 (32.2)1609 (31.3)1655 (30.4)1543 (30.4)6459 (31.0)
Missing187 (3.6)240 (4.7)303 (5.6)300 (5.9)1030 (5.0)
Risk perceptionLow1303 (25.4)1510 (29.4)1725 (31.6)1679 (33.0)6217 (29.9)
Medium1610 (31.4)1514 (29.5)1583 (29.0)1445 (28.4)6152 (29.6)
High2016 (39.3)1839 (35.8)1797 (33.0)1646 (32.4)7298 (35.1)
Missing206 (4.0)273 (5.3)348 (6.4)312 (6.1)1139 (5.5)
Sensation seekingLow1585 (30.9)1546 (30.1)1632 (29.9)1497 (29.5)6260 (30.1)
Medium1625 (31.6)1608 (31.3)1648 (30.1)1517 (29.8)6398 (30.7)
High1713 (33.4)1719 (33.5)1824 (33.6)1748 (34.4)7004 (33.7)
Missing212 (4.1)263 (5.1)349 (6.4)320 (6.3)1144 (5.5)
  • NSW, New South Wales; SES, socioeconomic status.