Table 3

Linear regression coefficients (B) and 95% CI for the associations between structural racism indicators and the absolute and relative racial inequity in IMR across all study counties and by urban–rural areas in the USA, 2013–2017

Absolute racial inequities in IMR
(black–white IMR difference)
Relative racial inequities in IMR
(black/white IMR ratio)
B95% CIB95% CI
All counties (n=1221)
 Educational attainment1.68*(0.56 to 2.79)0.46*(0.17 to 0.75)
 Median household income1.11†(0.26 to 1.96)0.33*(0.11 to 0.55)
 Jail incarceration rate1.16†(0.05 to 2.27)0.40*(0.19 to 0.61)
 Overall structural racism1.84*(0.83 to 2.85)0.49*(0.23 to 0.75)
Urban counties (n=775)
 Educational attainment1.44*(0.39 to 2.48)0.46*(0.17 to 0.75)
 Median household income1.32*(0.51 to 2.12)0.33*(0.11 to 0.55)
 Jail incarceration rate1.60*(0.66 to 2.54)0.40*(0.19 to 0.61)
 Overall structural racism1.77*(0.74 to 2.79)0.49*(0.23 to 0.75)
Rural counties (n=436)
 Educational attainment1.59(−1.57 to 4.75)0.08(−0.36 to 0.51)
 Median household income−0.04(−2.79 to 2.71)0.17(−0.34 to 0.68)
 Jail incarceration rate2.39(−0.33 to 5.10)0.37(0.18 to 0.92)
 Overall structural racism2.72(−0.35 to 5.79)0.52(−0.09 to 1.12)
  • *P<0.01.

  • †P<0.05.

  • B, linear regression coefficient adjusting for county-level poverty, population with a bachelor’s degree or higher, and county incarceration rate; CI, confidence intervals; IMR, infant mortality rate.