Table 1

Incidence rate ratios (IRR) showing the relative increase in age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality with each SD increase in relationship between vulnerability indicators and age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality rate for MSOAs in England

Lower limitUpper limit
Long-term health conditions (%)1.19***1.151.22
Overcrowding (%)1.11***1.061.15
Care home beds (up to 3 SD) (%)1.28***1.261.31
Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups (%)1.08***1.031.13
  • Poisson model also adjusted for duration of epidemic, region and a linear spline for the care home variable above 3 SD.

  • *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.

  • MSOAs, Middle Super Output Areas.