Table 3

Rate ratios* of crash by SES. DRIVE cohort, NSW, Australia, 2003–2016

Type of crashSocioeconomic groupAll participantsWomenMen
UnadjustedAdjusted†UnadjustedAdjusted†UnadjustedAdjusted†
RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)
Any car crashHighest SES111111
Second quartile1.05 (0.96 to 1.14)1.10 (1.01 to 1.20)1.09 (0.96 to 1.23)1.14 (1.01 to 1.29)1.03 (0.92 to 1.16)1.07 (0.95 to 1.20)
Third quartile1.06 (0.98 to 1.16)1.21 (1.11 to 1.32)1.09 (0.97 to 1.23)1.25 (1.11 to 1.42)1.05 (0.94 to 1.18)1.18 (1.05 to 1.33)
Lowest SES1.13 (1.04 to 1.23)1.30 (1.20 to 1.42)1.17 (1.04 to 1.32)1.33 (1.18 to 1.50)1.12 (0.99 to 1.25)1.27 (1.12 to 1.43)
Crash requiring hospitalisation or deathHighest SES111111
Second quartile1.44 (0.94 to 2.22)1.39 (0.90 to 2.13)1.30 (0.74 to 2.29)1.23 (0.70 to 2.15)1.64 (0.85 to 3.17)1.64 (0.85 to 3.16)
Third quartile1.67 (1.11 to 2.50)1.59 (1.04 to 2.43)1.75 (1.04 to 2.95)1.63 (0.95 to 2.81)1.52 (0.79 to 2.90)1.53 (0.77 to 3.06)
Lowest SES2.24 (1.51 to 3.34)2.06 (1.36 to 3.12)2.47 (1.48 to 4.11)2.14 (1.26 to 3.65)1.83 (0.96 to 3.46)1.88 (0.96 to 3.65)
Urbanisation—countryHighest SES111111
Second quartile2.96 (2.31 to 3.78)2.28 (1.78 to 2.93)4.18 (2.79 to 6.26)3.22 (2.14 to 4.85)2.36 (1.72 to 3.24)1.78 (1.29 to 2.45)
Third quartile4.41 (3.50 to 5.57)2.56 (2.00 to 3.27)5.95 (4.05 to 8.75)3.54 (2.37 to 5.29)3.68 (2.74 to 4.94)2.04 (1.48 to 2.79)
Lowest SES5.01 (3.97 to 6.32)3.09 (2.41 to 3.95)7.10 (4.83 to 10.44)4.32 (2.89 to 6.45)4.00 (2.97 to 5.37)2.44 (1.77 to 3.36)
Single-vehicle crashHighest SES11111
Second quartile0.96 (0.74 to 1.25)0.94 (0.72 to 1.21)1.18 (0.72 to 1.96)1.14 (0.69 to 1.90)0.94 (0.69 to 1.27)0.88 (0.65 to 1.20)
Third quartile1.29 (1.02 to 1.64)1.18 (0.92 to 1.52)2.16 (1.38 to 3.37)2.01 (1.26 to 3.19)1.05 (0.79 to 1.41)0.93 (0.68 to 1.27)
Lowest SES1.74 (1.38 to 2.18)1.61 (1.26 to 2.05)3.10 (2.01 to 4.76)2.88 (1.83 to 4.54)1.37 (1.04 to 1.81)1.23 (0.91 to 1.64)
Speed limit of 80 km/hour or aboveHighest SES11111
Second quartile1.60 (1.29 to 1.99)1.52 (1.23 to 1.90)1.49 (1.09 to 2.05)1.45 (1.05 to 1.99)1.73 (1.28 to 2.32)1.60 (1.19 to 2.16)
Third quartile2.17 (1.77 to 2.66)1.96 (1.58 to 2.44)2.28 (1.70 to 3.05)2.13 (1.56 to 2.91)2.10 (1.58 to 2.79)1.81 (1.34 to 2.45)
Lowest SES2.46 (2.01 to 3.01)2.28 (1.85 to 2.82)2.52 (1.88 to 3.38)2.33 (1.71 to 3.17)2.44 (1.84 to 3.23)2.23 (1.66 to 2.99)
Wet conditionsHighest SES111111
Second quartile1.03 (0.86 to 1.23)1.07 (0.90 to 1.28)1.09 (0.84 to 1.42)1.15 (0.88 to 1.49)0.99 (0.77 to 1.26)1.01 (0.79 to 1.30)
Third quartile1.12 (0.94 to 1.34)1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)1.07 (0.82 to 1.39)1.23 (0.93 to 1.61)1.19 (0.94 to 1.50)1.28 (1.00 to 1.64)
Lowest SES1.12 (0.94 to 1.33)1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)1.20 (0.93 to 1.55)1.35 (1.03 to 1.77)1.07 (0.84 to 1.36)1.17 (0.91 to 1.51)
DarknessHighest SES111111
Second quartile0.95 (0.82 to 1.11)1.02 (0.87 to 1.19)1.02 (0.81 to 1.30)1.09 (0.86 to 1.38)0.93 (0.76 to 1.13)0.98 (0.80 to 1.19)
Third quartile0.91 (0.78 to 1.06)1.07 (0.92 to 1.26)0.97 (0.77 to 1.23)1.15 (0.90 to 1.48)0.90 (0.74 to 1.09)1.02 (0.83 to 1.26)
Lowest SES0.87 (0.74 to 1.02)1.03 (0.87 to 1.21)0.95 (0.75 to 1.21)1.14 (0.89 to 1.46)0.84 (0.68 to 1.03)0.96 (0.78 to 1.19)
  • *Negative binomial regression of imputed data.

  • †Adjusted for all variables in table 1: SES, sex (all particpants only), age, geographical remoteness, alcohol audit summary score, cannabis smoking, self-rated driving ability, number of attempts on driving test, risk perception score, risk-taking score, sensation score, crash before study, professional training, length on learner licence and average weekly driving.

  • NSW, New South Wales; RR, rate ratio; SES, socioeconomic status.