Table 1

Health and social policies that are universal or aimed at four different age groups or different socioeconomic groups (examples from different countries, not just Italy) (reproduced from Vineis and Wild)6

Age groups0–45–1819–6667+
Universal policies or aimed at age groupsUniversal health coverageUniversal health coverageUniversal health coverageUniversal health coverage
Childcare benefitsChildcare benefitsState pensions
Immunisation programmesImmunisation programmes
Universal-free education
Prevention measures in the workplace
Banning smoking in public areasBanning smoking in public areasBanning smoking in public areasBanning smoking in public areas
Sugary beverages taxSugary beverages taxSugary beverages axeSugary beverages tax
A ban on transfatsA ban on transfatsA ban on transfatsA ban on transfats
Traffic-light food labelling, including calorie informationTraffic-light food labelling, including calorie informationTraffic-light food labelling, including calorie informationTraffic-light food labelling, including calorie information
Promotion of active transport (bicycle, walking)Promotion of active transport (bicycle, walking)Promotion of active transport (bicycle, walking)Promotion of active transport (bicycle, walking)
Promotion of safe play areas for children (both in the home and outdoors)Promotion of safe play areas for children (both in the home and outdoors)
Replace individual transport with high quality public transport (trains, buses, underground)Replace individual transport with high quality public transport (trains, buses, underground)Replace individual transport with high quality public transport (trains, buses, underground)Replace individual transport with high quality public transport (trains, buses, underground)
0–45–1819–6667+
Aimed at socioeconomic groupsFlexible retirement policies
Household policies (spacious and healthy living conditions)Household policies (spacious and healthy living conditions)Household policies (spacious and healthy living conditions)Household policies (spacious and healthy living conditions)
Unemployment benefits
Social support systemsSocial support systemsSocial support systemsSocial support systems
Emergency support in times of recessionEmergency support in times of recessionEmergency support in times of recessionEmergency support in times of recession
Free transport in the under 5 sReduced cost transport for school age childrenFree transport for jobseekersFree transport