Table 1

Descriptive statistics of sample with DNA methylation age acceleration measures at age 53 by sex (n=1376)

VariableMenWomen
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Chronological age (year)53.44 (0.16)53.45 (0.18)
Horvath DNAm age (year)50.69 (4.15)49.61 (3.86)
Hannum DNAm age (year)43.06 (4.28)41.61 (3.95)
PhenoAge (year)39.01 (5.59)38.94 (5.61)
GrimAge (year)57.99 (5.14)55.32 (4.81)
Horvath age difference* (year)−2.76 (4.15)−3.84 (3.86)
Hannum age difference* (year)−10.38 (4.28)−11.84 (3.95)
PhenoAge age difference* (year)−14.43 (5.60)−14.51 (5.60)
GrimAge age difference* (year)4.54 (5.14)1.87 (4.80)
Horvath age acceleration† (year)0.54 (4.15)−0.54 (3.86)
Hannum age acceleration† (year)0.79 (4.28)−0.66 (3.95)
PhenoAge age acceleration† (year)0.06 (5.59)−0.02 (5.61)
GrimAge age acceleration† (year)1.40 (5.14)−1.28 (4.79)
N (%)N (%)
Childhood social class (age 4)
Professional36 (5.49)41 (5.69)
Intermediate115 (17.53)121 (16.81)
Skilled non-manual118 (17.99)130 (18.06)
Skilled manual203 (30.95)221 (30.69)
Partly skilled137 (20.88)145 (20.14)
Unskilled33 (5.03)40 (5.56)
Missing14 (2.13)22 (3.06)
Adults social class (age 53)
Professional76 (11.59)13 (1.81)
Intermediate258 (39.33)226 (31.39)
Skilled non-manual73 (11.13)232 (32.22)
Skilled manual165 (25.15)48 (6.67)
Partly skilled53 (8.08)103 (14.31)
Unskilled15 (2.29)43 (5.97)
Missing16 (2.44)55 (7.64)
Intergenerational social class change
Stable non-manual213 (32.47)231 (32.08)
Non-manual to manual49 (7.47)51 (7.08)
Manual to non-manual184 (28.05)229 (31.81)
Stable manual180 (27.44)136 (18.89)
Missing30 (4.57)73 (10.14)
Educational attainment (age 26)
Higher education93 (14.18)39 (5.42)
School post-16193 (29.42)156 (21.67)
Vocational/school to 16146 (22.26)251 (34.86)
No qualifications223 (33.99)260 (36.11)
Missing1 (0.15)14 (1.94)
Annual household income (age 53)
£45 000 or more73 (11.13)51 (7.08)
£35 000–£44 99963 (9.60)54 (7.50)
£30 000–£34 999103 (15.7)78 (10.83)
£25 000–£29 99958 (8.84)59 (8.19)
£20 000–£24 99999 (15.09)111 (15.42)
£15 000–£19 99999 (15.09)95 (13.19)
£10 000–£14 99982 (12.50)121 (16.81)
Less than £10 00061 (9.30)108 (15.00)
Missing18 (2.74)43 (5.97)
Total656720
  • *Difference between DNAm age and chronological age.

  • †The residual from regressing DNA age on chronological age.

  • DNAm, DNAm methylation.