Table 3

Relation between assets, COVID-19 financial stressor exposure and probable depression among US adults

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)BetaOR (95% CI)
 Low3.0 (2.1 to 4.2)2.6 (1.8 to 3.7)1.4n/a
COVID-19 financial stressors
 High2.8 (2.1 to 3.9)2.3 (1.6 to 3.2)1.4n/a
Assets*COVID-19 financial stressor indicator−1n/a
 Low assets, low stressors6.4 (4.0 to 10.3)
 Low assets, low stressors4.3 (2.6 to 6.9)
 High assets, high stressors4.2 (2.5 to 7.2)
 High assets, low stressors1
  • Data: COVID-19 and Life stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-being study collected from 31 March 2020 through 13 April 2020 (n=1441). Complete case analysis used for multiple logistic regression resulting in n=1327 for this model. Nationally representative of US adults ages 18 years and older.

  • All models controlled for age, race/ethnicity, sex and household size.

  • Probable depression defined as Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score cut-off of ≥10.

  • Interaction indicator term: high or low assets*COVID-19 financial stressor exposure. High assets defined by having three or more of the following: household income (above $45 000), household savings (above $5000), home ownership, education (college or more) and being married. High COVID-19 financial stressor exposure defined by experiencing one or more of the following COVID-19 stressors: losing a job, having a family member lose a job, having financial difficulties and having difficulty paying rent. Low COVID-19 financial stressor exposure refers to the absence of endorsement of COVID-19-related financial stressor exposure.

  • Model 1 shows the odds of depression with no assets (not controlling for stressors). Model 2 shows the odds of depression with stressors (not controlling for assets). Model 3 shows the odds of depression with stressors and assets (no interaction term). Model 4 shows the odds of depression with stressors and assets and an interaction term between the two.

  • OR not given for variables where interactions are present since ORs are uninterpretable. Model parameters used to determine the relative odds of the relation between specific variables and depression.

  • n/a, not applicable.