Table 2

Fully adjusted ORs and β coefficients (with 95% CIs) of the relationship between clinical vulnerability to COVID-19 (CV) and health during the pandemic, controlling for prepandemic health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

Poor SRHLess physical activityDepressed
(CES-D)
QoL
(CASP-12)†
Happiness†Satisfaction†Anxiety
(GAD-7)†‡
Model A
 CV1.93***
(1.57 to 2.36)
1.41***
(1.21 to 1.64)
1.55***
(1.30 to 1.85)
−0.751**
(−1.08 to 0.41)
−0.152*
(−0.29 to −0.01)
−0.111
(−0.24 to 0.04)
1.85***
(1.39 to 2.47)
 52–590.81
(0.61 to 1.09)
1.01
(0.81 to 1.25)
1.31**
(1.03 to 1.67)
−0.302
(−0.76 to 0.15)
−0.064
(−0.25 to 0.13)
−0.065
(−0.26 to 0.13)
1.54*
(1.01 to 2.37)
 60–690.96
(0.77 to 1.20)
0.93
(0.79 to 1.09)
1.26**
(1.03 to 1.54)
0.071
(−0.30 to 0.44)
−0.151*
(−0.30 to −0.01)
−0.095
(−0.25 to 0.06)
1.86***
(1.32 to 2.62)
 70–79RefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 80+0.98
(0.76 to 1.27)
0.99
(0.82 to 1.20)
0.98
(0.76 to 1.27)
−0.312
(−0.75 to 0.12)
0.146
(−0.03 to 0.32)
0.216*
(0.03 to 0.41)
0.74
(0.46 to 1.18)
Model B
 52–59, not CV0.94
(0.65 to 1.34)
1.17
(0.91 to 1.51)
1.31
(0.98 to 1.75)
−0.396
(−0.91 to 0.12)
−0.082
(−0.29 to 0.13)
−0.144
(−0.36 to 0.07)
1.50
(0.85 to 2.66)
 60–69, not CV1.09
(0.80 to 1.47)
0.99
(0.80 to 1.23)
1.04
(0.81 to 1.34)
0.147
(−0.25 to 0.55)
−0.103
(−0.26 to 0.06)
−0.050
(−0.20 to 0.10)
1.43
(0.88 to 2.32)
 70–79, not CVRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 80+, not CV1.12
(0.75 to 1.67)
1.06
(0.81 to 1.39)
0.89
(0.64 to 1.23)
−0.530*
(−1.05 to −0.01)
0.113
(−0.11 to 0.33)
0.159
(−0.08 to 0.40)
0.79
(0.41 to 1.53)
 52–59, CV1.65*
(1.04 to 2.61)
1.33
(0.92 to 1.90)
1.94**
(1.30 to 2.90)
−0.933*
(−1.72 to −0.15)
−0.150
(−0.51 to 0.21)
−0.032
(−0.35 to 0.29)
1.95*
(1.02 to 3.72)
 60–69, CV2.02***
(1.45 to 2.81)
1.46**
(1.13 to 1.89)
1.86***
(1.37 to 2.54)
−0.908**
(−1.56 to −0.25)
−0.375**
(−0.65 to −0.10)
−0.329*
(−0.60 to −0.06)
3.94***
(2.47 to 6.29)
 70–79, CV2.31***
(1.76 to 3.03)
1.66***
(1.36 to 2.03)
1.50***
(1.18 to 1.89)
−0.815***
(−1.26 to −0.37)
−0.135
(−0.30 to 0.03)
−0.137
(−0.32 to 0.05)
1.71*
(1.08 to 2.70)
 80+, CV2.06***
(1.46 to 2.91)
1.53**
(1.18 to 1.98)
1.20
(0.86 to 1.68)
−0.934**
(−1.57 to −0.29)
0.037
(−0.22 to 0.30)
0.135
(−0.14 to 0.41)
1.24
(0.67 to 2.31)
Observations5310539253065004483249394912
  • Source: ELSA, COVID-19 substudy wave 1 (June/July 2020) and wave 9 (2018/2019). All models control for gender, ethnicity, partnership status, number of respondents in the household, education, wealth quintiles and income. Each model also controls for the relevant health variable at baseline (except less physical activity). All continuous measures are coded such that higher values mean better outcomes. Values in brackets show the 95% CIs. Weighted data.

  • *P<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Questions in wave 9 were asked in the self-completion questionnaire.

  • ‡This model controls for baseline anxiety measure using the ONS question.

  • CASP-12, Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure-12 scale; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CV, clinically vulnerable; ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; GAD-7, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; ONS, Office for National Statistics; QoL, quality of life; SRH, self-rated health.