Table 1

Percent (and n) distribution of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, health and social well-being, by clinical vulnerability to COVID-19

All sampleClinically not vulnerableClinically vulnerableP value
Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics
 Mean age (SD)67.065.4 (10.06)69.4 (10.88)<0.001
 Female52.753.3 (1984)51.8 (1205)0.392
 Non-White7.15.8 (107)9.1 (114)0.007
 In lowest wealth quintile19.415.7 (367)25.2 (363)<0.001
 2nd wealth quintile19.817.9 (506)22.7 (454)
 3rd wealth quintile20.420.3 (705)20.4 (489)
 4th wealth quintile20.422.5 (863)17.3 (444)
 In highest wealth quintile20.023.6 (918)14.4 (398)
 Mean income in £10 000 (SD)2.312.52 (2.31)1.99 (1.65)<0.001
 Married/cohabiting65.969.5 (2372)60.2 (1338)<0.001
 Mean people in household (SD)2.162.20 (1.01)2.09 (1.04)0.010
 High education20.524.3 (950)14.8 (409)<0.001
 Medium education49.150.8 (1694)46.3 (1059)
 Low education30.424.9 (716)38.9 (686)
Health
 Poor self-rated health25.615.7 (474)40.9 (808)<0.001
 Less physically active35.532.5 (1091)40.2 (893)<0.001
 3+ CES-D depressive symptoms27.922.7 (743)35.9 (712)<0.001
 10+ GAD-7 anxiety9.66.5 (192)14.4 (235)<0.001
 Happiness (SD)7.527.70 (1.99)7.22 (2.14)<0.001
 Life satisfaction (SD)7.387.65 (2.00)6.94 (2.51)<0.001
 Mean CASP-12 score (SD)26.127.4 (5.66)24.0 (6.77)<0.001
Social well-being
 Voluntary work16.818.7 (638)13.8 (316)<0.001
 High loneliness (UCLA)23.319.9 (653)28.5 (566)<0.001
 Less than weekly contacts (phone)9.99.7 (301)10.3 (206)0.556
 Less than weekly contacts (email/text/video call)15.713.0 (419)19.9 (406)<0.001
 Has received formal help9.14.6 (164)16.2 (341)0.001
 Unmet care needs9.44.9 (163)16.4 (305)<0.001
Shielding16.18.1 (328)28.5 (614)<0.001
Total respondents558560.8 (3413)39.2 (2172)
  • Source: ELSA, COVID-19 substudy wave 1 (June/July 2020) and wave 9 (2018/2019). Weighted data. P values refer to the relevant statistical tests (ie, t-test, ANOVA or χ2 tests).

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; CASP-12, Control, Autonomy, Self-realization and Pleasure-12 scale; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; GAD-7, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7.