Table 5

Fully adjusted ORs (with 95% CIs) of the relationship between the interaction of clinical vulnerability to COVID-19 (CV) with shielding and social well-being during the pandemic, controlling for prepandemic social well-being, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

Voluntary workHigh loneliness†Less weekly contacts (phone)†Less weekly contacts
(text/email)†
Received careUnmet care needs
Not CV, not shieldingRefRefRefRefRefRef
Not CV, shielding0.62*
(0.39 to 0.97)
1.05
(0.67 to 1.66)
1.20
(0.65 to 2.22)
1.43
(0.89 to 2.29)
3.14***
(1.95 to 5.07)
2.26**
(1.38 to 3.72)
CV, not shielding0.95
(0.76 to 1.19)
1.17
(0.92 to 1.48)
1.12
(0.80 to 1.56)
1.18
(0.87 to 1.61)
2.72***
(2.02 to 3.64)
2.80***
(1.97 to 3.98)
CV, shielding0.62*
(0.43 to 0.91)
1.67**
(1.19 to 2.37)
0.99
(0.64 to 1.54)
1.16
(0.74 to 1.82)
5.80***
(3.98 to 8.47)
5.41***
(3.59 to 8.15)
50–591.63***
(1.22 to 2.18)
1.14
(0.85 to 1.52)
1.20
(0.81 to 1.79)
0.64*
(0.42 to 0.99)
0.27***
(0.15 to 0.49)
1.10
(0.72 to 1.68)
60–691.53***
(1.23 to 1.90)
1.09
(0.86 to 1.37)
1.27
(0.94 to 1.71)
0.73*
(0.53 to 1.00)
0.59**
(0.43 to 0.81)
0.87
(0.62 to 1.23)
70–79RefRefRefRefRefRef
80+1.08
(0.81 to 1.45)
0.76
(0.57 to 1.01)
1.00
(0.67 to 1.50)
2.25***
(1.69 to 3.01)
2.20***
(1.65 to 2.94)
1.34
(0.98 to 1.84)
Observations534050184539405554355432
  • Source: ELSA, COVID-19 substudy wave 1 (June/July 2020) and wave 9 (2018/2019). All models control for gender, ethnicity, partnership status, number of respondents in the household, education, wealth quintiles and income. Each model also controls for the relevant social well-being variable at baseline. Values in brackets show the 95% CIs. Weighted data.

  • *P<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Questions in wave 9 were asked in the self-completion questionnaire.

  • CV, clinically vulnerable; ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.