Table 3

Fully adjusted ORs (with 95% CIs) of the relationship between clinical vulnerability to COVID-19 (CV) and social well-being during the pandemic, controlling for prepandemic social well-being, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

Voluntary workHigh loneliness†Less than weekly contacts (phone)†Less than weekly contacts
(text/email)†
Received careUnmet care needs
Model A
 CV0.89
(0.73 to 1.10)
1.28**
(1.04 to 1.59)
1.06
(0.79 to 1.44)
1.12
(0.85 to 1.47)
2.78***
(2.14 to 3.61)
3.05***
(2.27 to 4.10)
 52–591.70***
(1.27 to 2.27)
1.11
(0.84 to 1.48)
1.20
(0.80 to 1.78)
0.55***
(0.37 to 0.81)
0.24***
(0.13 to 0.43)
0.98
(0.65 to 1.49)
 60–691.57***
(1.26 to 1.95)
1.07
(0.85 to 1.35)
1.26
(0.94 to 1.70)
0.72***
(0.53 to 0.98)
0.55***
(0.41 to 0.75)
0.83
(0.59 to 1.17)
 70–79RefRefRefRefRefRef
 80+1.03
(0.77 to 1.36)
0.78
(0.59 to 1.03)
1.01
(0.67 to 1.54)
2.31***
(1.70 to 3.13)
2.36***
(1.78 to 3.14)
1.44*
(1.06 to 1.96)
Model B
 52–59, not CV1.75**
(1.25 to 2.44)
1.22
(0.88 to 1.69)
1.18
(0.74 to 1.88)
0.81
(0.48 to 1.36)
0.15***
(0.06 to 0.38)
0.52*
(0.29 to 0.93)
 60–69, not CV1.60***
(1.22 to 2.10)
0.99
(0.74 to 1.34)
1.34
(0.91 to 1.97)
0.80
(0.54 to 1.20)
0.49*
(0.28 to 0.85)
0.51*
(0.29 to 0.92)
 70–79, not CVRefRefRefRefRefRef
 80+, not CV1.14
(0.79 to 1.66)
0.92
(0.64 to 1.32)
1.28
(0.73 to 2.25)
3.17***
(2.13 to 4.73)
3.14***
(2.02 to 4.90)
1.90**
(1.19 to 3.04)
 52–59, CV1.61*
(1.02 to 2.54)
1.27
(0.76 to 2.13)
1.49
(0.77 to 2.86)
0.62
(0.26 to 1.51)
0.89
(0.42 to 1.88)
2.99***
(1.71 to 5.22)
 60–69, CV1.47*
(1.05 to 2.07)
1.65**
(1.17 to 2.31)
1.35
(0.85 to 2.14)
1.19
(0.72 to 1.96)
1.73*
(1.12 to 2.65)
2.45***
(1.54 to 3.88)
 70–79, CV0.96
(0.72 to 1.28)
1.35*
(1.02 to 1.78)
1.16
(0.78 to 1.73)
1.45*
(1.03 to 2.04)
2.89***
(2.00 to 4.18)
2.28***
(1.58 to 3.28)
 80+, CV0.88
(0.58 to 1.32)
0.92
(0.61 to 1.36)
0.93
(0.51 to 1.67)
2.53***
(1.71 to 3.75)
5.91***
(3.94 to 8.86)
2.88***
(1.90 to 4.37)
Observations537650534513405554005398
  • Source: ELSA, COVID-19 substudy wave 1 (June/July 2020) and wave 9 (2018/2019). All models control for gender, ethnicity, partnership status, number of respondents in the household, education, wealth quintiles and income. Each model also controls for the relevant social well-being variable at baseline (except for ‘unmet care needs’). Values in brackets show the 95% CIs. Weighted data.

  • *P<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Questions in wave 9 were asked in the self-completion questionnaire.

  • CV, clinically vulnerable; ELSA, English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.